As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 23, 2020

 

Registration No. 333-

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM F-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

England and Wales   2834   98-1034922

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

75/76 Wimpole Street

London W1G 9RT

United Kingdom
Tel: +44 20 8004 0270

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Puglisi & Associates

850 Library Avenue

Newark, Delaware 19711

Tel: (302) 738-6680

(Name, Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies of all correspondence to:

 

Todd Finger, Esq.

Gary Emmanuel, Esq.

Richard Bass, Esq.

McDermott Will & Emery LLP
340 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10173

Tel: (212) 547-5400

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

 

Emerging growth company ¨

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ¨

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each class of 
securities to be registered
  Amount to be
registered(1)
    Proposed
maximum
offering price
per unit(2)
    Proposed maximum
aggregate offering
price(3)
    Amount of registration fee(4)  
                         
Ordinary Shares, $0.0001 par value each (5)                                
Warrants                                
Subscription Rights                                
Debt Securities                                
Units                                
Total   $ 100,000,000             $ 100,000,000     $ 490.94 (6)

 

(1) There are being registered under this registration statement such indeterminate number of ordinary shares, warrants, subscription rights, debt securities, and units, as may be sold by the registrant from time to time, which collectively shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000 or, if any securities are issued for consideration denominated in a foreign currency, such amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price equivalent to a maximum of $100,000,000. The securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of ordinary shares as may be issued upon conversion, exercise or exchange of warrants or debt securities that provide for such conversion into, exercise for or exchange into ordinary shares. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the ordinary shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of ordinary shares as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends, or similar transactions.  If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering may be in such greater principal amount as shall result in a maximum aggregate offering price not to exceed $100,000,000 after the date hereof.

 

(2) Not specified as to each class of securities to be registered pursuant to General Instruction II.C. of Form F-3.
   
(3) An indeterminate aggregate amount of securities is being registered as may from time to time be sold at indeterminate prices.

 

(4) The registration fee has been calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act on the basis of the maximum aggregate offering price of the securities listed.

 

(5) Ordinary shares may be in the form of American Depositary Shares. American Depositary Shares issuable on deposit of the ordinary shares registered hereby have been registered under separate registration statements on Form F-6 (File No. 333-185197) and Form F-6 (File No. 333-234213). Each American Depositary Share represents the right to receive one hundred ordinary shares.
   
(6) As discussed below, pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) of the Securities Act, this registration statement includes a total of $95,500,055.20 aggregate offering price of unsold securities that were previously registered on a registration statement on Form F-3 (Registration No. 333-220052) and for which the registration fee was previously paid. Accordingly, the $490.94 registration fee shown above has been calculated based on the proposed maximum offering price of the additional $4,499,944.80 of securities registered on this registration statement.

 

Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) of the Securities Act, the securities registered pursuant to this registration statement include $95,500,055.20 aggregate offering price of unsold securities of the registrant previously registered on its Registration Statement on Form F-3 (Registration No. 333-220052), filed on August 18, 2017 and declared effective on February 23, 2018, which the registrant refers to as the Prior Registration Statement. The previously paid filing fee relating to such unsold securities under the Prior Registration Statement will continue to be applied to such unsold securities registered in this registration statement. To the extent that, after the filing date hereof and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, any such unsold securities are sold pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, the registrant will identify in a pre-effective amendment to this registration statement the updated amount of unsold securities from the Prior Registration Statement to be included in this registration statement pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) and the updated amount of new securities to be registered on this registration statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of the unsold securities registered under the Prior Registration Statement, if not previously terminated, will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this Registration Statement.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the SEC, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed.  We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.  This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state or jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED DECEMBER 23, 2020

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

 

$100,000,000

 

Ordinary Shares

American Depositary Shares representing Ordinary Shares

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities

Units

 

We may offer, issue and sell from time to time up to US$100,000,000, or its equivalent in any other currency, currency units, or composite currency or currencies, of our ordinary shares, including in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, warrants to purchase ordinary shares, including in the form of ADSs, subscription rights, debt securities and a combination of such securities, separately or as units, in one or more offerings. Each ADS represents 100 ordinary shares. This prospectus provides a general description of offerings of these securities that we may undertake.

 

We refer to our ADSs, ordinary shares, warrants, subscription rights, debt securities, and units collectively as “securities” in this prospectus.

 

Each time we sell our securities pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide the specific terms of such offering in a supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can More Find Information,” before you make your investment decision.

 

We may, from time to time, offer to sell the securities, through public or private transactions, directly or through underwriters, agents or dealers, on or off the Nasdaq Capital Market, at prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices. If any underwriters, agents or dealers are involved in the sale of any of these securities, the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the names of the underwriter, agent or dealer and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts.

 

Our ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AKTX”. On December 22, 2020, the closing price of our ADSs on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $1.95 per ADS.

 

The aggregate market value of our outstanding voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates on December 22, 2020, as calculated in accordance with General Instruction I.B.5. of Form F-3, was approximately $61.2 million. We have not issued any securities pursuant to Instruction I.B.5. of Form F-3 during the 12 calendar month period that ends on and includes the date hereof.

 

Investing in these securities involves a high degree of risk. Please carefully consider the risks discussed in this prospectus under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 6 and the “Risk Factors” and in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any applicable prospectus supplement for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.

 

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state or other foreign securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete.  Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is , 2021

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

About this Prospectus 1
Our Business 2
Risk Factors 4
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements 4
Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable 5
Use of Proceeds 5
Capitalization 5
Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association 6
Description of American Depositary Shares 21
Description of Warrants 30
Description of Subscription Rights 31
Description of Debt Securities 32
Description of Units 40
Taxation 40
Plan of Distribution 40
Experts 44
Legal Matters 44
Where You Can Find More Information 44
Incorporation of Certain Information By Reference 45
Indemnification for Securities Act Liabilities 46
Enforcement of Foreign Judgments 46
Expenses 46

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell our securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100,000,000. Each time we offer our securities, we will provide you with a supplement to this prospectus that will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities we offer. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. This prospectus, together with applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements, includes all material information relating to this offering. Please read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation By Reference.”

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, as well as information we have previously filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference, is accurate as of the date on the front of those documents only. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of our securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise designated, the terms “we”, “us”, “our”, “Akari”, “the Company” and “our Company” refer to Akari Therapeutics, Plc and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. References to “ordinary shares”, “ADSs”, “warrants” and “share capital” refer to the ordinary shares, ADSs, warrants and share capital, respectively, of Akari.

 

Market data and certain industry data and forecasts used in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus were obtained from sources we believe to be reliable, including market research databases, publicly available information, reports of governmental agencies and industry publications and surveys. We have relied on certain data from third-party sources, including internal surveys, industry forecasts and market research, which we believe to be reliable based on our management’s knowledge of the industry. Forecasts are particularly likely to be inaccurate, especially over long periods of time. In addition, we do not necessarily know what assumptions regarding general economic growth were used in preparing the third-party forecasts we cite. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented in this prospectus, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate our expected results for any future periods.

 

Certain figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them.

 

We have obtained the statistical data, market data and other industry data and forecasts used in this prospectus and in our SEC filings incorporated herein by reference from publicly available information. We have not sought the consent of the sources to refer to the publicly available reports in this prospectus.

 

 1 

 

 

OUR BUSINESS

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus that we consider important. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our securities. You should read this summary together with the entire prospectus, any prospectus supplement, including the risks related to our business, our industry, investing in our ordinary shares and our location in the United Kingdom, that we describe under “Risk Factors” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, which are described under “Incorporation by Reference” before making an investment in our securities..

 

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing treatments for acute and chronic inflammation, specifically through the inhibition of the complement and leukotriene pathways. Each of these systems has scientifically well-supported causative roles in the diseases being targeted by us. We believe that blocking early mediators of inflammation will prevent initiation and continual amplification of the processes that cause certain diseases.

 

Our lead product candidate, nomacopan (formerly known as Coversin) inhibits both terminal complement activation and leukotriene B4, or LTB4. It inhibits terminal complement activation by tightly binding to C5 and preventing its cleavage. It inhibits LTB4 by capturing the fatty acid within the body of the nomacopan protein.

 

Nomacopan is a recombinant small protein (16,740 Da) derived from a protein originally discovered in the saliva of the Ornithodoros moubata tick, where it modulates the host immune system to allow the parasite to feed without alerting the host to its presence or provoking an immune response.

 

Nomacopan has received orphan drug status from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, and the European Medicines Agency, or the EMA, for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, or PNH, Guillain Barré Syndrome, or GBS, high-risk hematopoietic stem cell transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, or HSCT-TMA, and bullous pemphigoid, or BP. Orphan drug designation provides us with certain benefits and incentives, including a period of marketing exclusivity if regulatory approval of the drug is ultimately received for the designated indication. The receipt of orphan drug designation status does not change the regulatory requirements or process for obtaining marketing approval and the designation does not mean that marketing approval will be received.

 

We have received Fast Track designation from the FDA for the investigation of nomacopan for the treatment of pediatric HSCT-TMA and for the treatment of PNH in patients who have polymorphisms conferring Soliris® (eculizumab) resistance. The Fast Track program was created by the FDA to facilitate the development and expedite the review of new drugs which show promise in treating a serious or life-threatening disease and address an unmet medical need. Drugs with Fast Track designation may also qualify for priority review to expedite the FDA review process, if relevant criteria are met.

 

Our clinical targets for nomacopan are orphan inflammatory diseases where the inhibition of both C5 and LTB4 are implicated, including bullous pemphigoid, or BP, pediatric HSCT-TMA, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, or AKC, and as well as COVID-19 pneumonia. Our clinical programs are in different stages of development ranging from phase 1 to phase 3.

 

 2 

 

 

Corporate Information

 

Our legal and commercial name is Akari Therapeutics, Plc.

 

We were originally established as a private limited company under the laws of England and Wales on October 7, 2004 under the name Freshname No. 333 Limited. On January 19, 2005, we changed our name to Morria Biopharmaceuticals Limited and on February 3, 2005, we completed a reverse merger with Morria Biopharmaceuticals Inc., or Morria, a Delaware corporation, in which Morria became our wholly-owned subsidiary and we re-registered as a non-traded public limited company under the laws of England and Wales. Morria was dedicated to the discovery and development of novel, first-in-class, non-steroidal, synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. On March 22, 2011, we incorporated an Israeli subsidiary, Morria Biopharma Ltd. On June 25, 2013, we changed our name to Celsus Therapeutics Plc and, on October 13, 2013, Morria was renamed Celsus Therapeutics Inc. As of the date of this prospectus, Celsus Therapeutics Inc. and Morria Biopharma Ltd. do not conduct any operations.

 

On September 18, 2015, we completed an acquisition of all of the capital stock of Volution Immuno Pharmaceuticals SA, or Volution, a private Swiss company, from RPC Pharma Limited, or RPC, Volution’s sole shareholder, in exchange for our ordinary shares, in accordance with the terms of a Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 10, 2015. In connection with the acquisition, our name was changed to Akari Therapeutics, Plc and the combined company focused on the development and commercialization of life-transforming treatments for a range of rare and orphan autoimmune and inflammatory diseases caused by dysregulation of complement C5.

 

Our ADSs have been listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AKTX” since September 21, 2015 and under the symbol “CLTX” from January 31, 2014 until September 18, 2015. Prior to that, our ADSs were quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol “CLSXD” from January 3, 2014 to January 30, 2014 and were quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol “CLSXY” from September 16, 2013 until January 2, 2014 and under the symbol “MRRBY” from February 19, 2013 to September 15, 2013. Effective January 3, 2014, our ratio of ADSs to ordinary shares changed from one ADS per each two ordinary shares to one ADS per each ten ordinary shares and, effective as of September 17, 2015, our ratio of ADSs to ordinary shares changed from one ADS per each ten ordinary shares to one ADS per each one hundred ordinary shares. Currently, each ADS represents by one hundred ordinary shares.

 

Our principal office is located at 75/76 Wimpole Street, London W1G 9RT, United Kingdom, and our telephone number is +44 20 8004 0270. Our website address is www.akaritx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is neither a part of nor incorporated into this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference. Puglisi & Associates, or Puglisi, serves as our agent for service of process in the United States for this offering. Puglisi’s address is 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711. Effective December 8, 2020, the currency of the Company’s ordinary shares was changed from pounds sterling to US dollars and the nominal (par) value of an ordinary share was reduced to USD0.0001.

 

Implications of being a Foreign Private Issuer

 

On July 1, 2016, we became a foreign private issuer having previously lost this status at the end of 2014. As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to the same requirements that are imposed upon U.S. domestic issuers by the SEC. Under the Exchange Act, we are subject to reporting obligations that, in certain respects, are less detailed and less frequent than those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. For example, we will not be required to issue proxy statements that comply with the requirements applicable to U.S. domestic reporting companies. We will also have four months after the end of each fiscal year to file our annual reports with the SEC and will not be required to file current reports as frequently or promptly as U.S. domestic reporting companies. Furthermore, our officers, directors, and principal shareholders will be exempt from the requirements to report transactions in our equity securities and from the short-swing profit liability provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. These exemptions and leniencies, along with other corporate governance exemptions resulting from our ability to rely on home country rules, will reduce the frequency and scope of information and protections to which you may otherwise have been eligible in relation to a U.S. domestic reporting companies. If we were to lose our foreign private issuer status, the regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer will be significantly more than costs we incur as a foreign private issuer.

 

 3 

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and under Item 3.D. – “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F (the “Annual Report”), or any updates in our Reports on Form 6-K, together with all of the other information appearing in this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, in light of your particular investment objectives and financial circumstances. The risks so described are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. The discussion of risks includes or refers to forward-looking statements; you should read the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on such forward-looking statements discussed elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, and the documents incorporated hereby reference, contain express or implied “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. Federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in our SEC filings incorporated herein by reference, including under Item 3.D. – “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report and any updates in our Reports on Form 6-K, which include statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

 

Words such as “may,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expects,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes” and words and terms of similar substance used in connection with any discussion of future operating or financial performance, identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements represent management’s present judgment regarding future events and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. These risks include, but are not limited to, risks and uncertainties regarding our pre-clinical and clinical studies, the results of such trials, as well as risks and uncertainties relating to litigation, government regulation and third-party reimbursement, economic conditions, markets, products, competition, intellectual property, services and prices, key employees, future capital needs, dependence on third parties and other factors. Please also see the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in the Annual Report and in our other SEC filings incorporated herein by reference.

 

In light of these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, the results and events discussed in the forward-looking statements contained in the Annual Report and in our other SEC filings incorporated herein by reference might not occur. We are not under any obligation, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

 

Public health epidemics or outbreaks could adversely impact our business. In late 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, known as COVID-19, was reported in Wuhan, China. Epidemics such as this can adversely impact our business as a result of disruptions, such as travel bans, quarantines, and interruptions to access the trial sites and supply chains, which could result in material delays and complications with respect to our research and development programs and clinical trials. Moreover, as a result of the coronavirus, there is a general unease of conducting unnecessary activities in medical centers. As a consequence, our ongoing trials have been halted or disrupted. It is too early to assess the full impact of the coronavirus outbreak on trials for nomacopan, but it has affected and is likely to continue to affect our ability to complete recruitment in our original timeframe. For example, we have halted our Phase I/II clinical trial in patients with AKC study and recruitment in our Phase III clinical trial in pediatric patients with HSCT-TMA was delayed and our long-term safety program was disrupted. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the duration and severity of the outbreak, and the actions that may be required to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact. In particular, the continued spread of the coronavirus globally could adversely impact our operations and workforce, including our research and clinical trials and our ability to raise capital, could affect the operations of key governmental agencies, such as the FDA, which may delay the development of our product candidates, and could result in the inability of our suppliers to deliver components or raw materials on a timely basis or at all, each of which in turn could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

 

You should read this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.

 

 4 

 

 

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

We may sell from time to time pursuant to this prospectus (as may be detailed in prospectus supplements) an indeterminate number of securities as shall have a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000.  The actual per share price of the securities that we will offer pursuant hereto will depend on a number of factors that may be relevant as of the time of offer (see "Plan of Distribution" below).

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures, regulatory affairs expenditures, clinical trial expenditures, acquisitions of new technologies and investments, and the repayment, refinancing, redemption or repurchase of future indebtedness or capital stock.

 

The intended application of proceeds from the sale of any particular offering of securities using this prospectus will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement relating to such offering. The precise amount and timing of the application of these proceeds will depend on our funding requirements and the availability and costs of other funds.

 

CAPITALIZATION

 

The following table sets forth our cash and capitalization as of September 30, 2020 on an actual basis.

 

The following information should be read in conjunction with the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus. For more details on how you can obtain the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

 

   As of September
30, 2020
 
   Actual 
  

(in thousands,
except
share and per
share data)

 
Cash  $12,318 
Liability related to Options and Warrants   5,449 
Shareholders' equity:     
Share capital   46,579 
Additional paid-in capital   113,070 
Accumulated other comprehensive income   (621)
Accumulated deficit   (154,169)
      
Total shareholders' equity   4,858 
      
Total capitalization (long-term liabilities and equity)   4,858 

 

The number of ordinary shares indicated as issued and outstanding above is based on 3,386,573,113 ordinary shares outstanding as of September 30, 2020, and excludes:

 

  · 112,649,035 ordinary shares (equivalent to 1,126,490 ADSs) issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of September 30, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $0.09 per ordinary share (equivalent to $8.95 per ADS);

 

  · 232,098,427 additional ordinary shares (equivalent to 2,320,984 ADSs) available for future issuance as of September 30, 2020 under our 2014 Equity Incentive Compensation Plan;

 

  · 279,763,600 ordinary shares (equivalent to 2,797,636 ADSs) issuable upon exercise of unregistered warrants issued to investors in a series of February 2020 private placements, having an exercise price of $2.20 per ADS;

 

  · 44,962,300 ordinary shares (equivalent to 449,623 ADSs) issuable upon exercise of unregistered warrants issued to the placement agent in connection with a series of February 2020 private placements, at an exercise price of $2.55 per ADS;

 

  · 118,421,300 ordinary shares (equivalent to 1,184,213 ADSs) issuable upon exercise of unregistered warrants issued to investors in a July 2019 financing, having an exercise price of $3.00 per ADS;

 

  · 17,762,900 ordinary shares (equivalent to 177,629 ADSs) issuable upon exercise of unregistered warrants issued to the placement agent in connection with a July 2019 financing, at an exercise price of $2.85 per ADS; and

 

  · 460,758,800 (equivalent to 4,607,588 ADSs) issued to Aspire pursuant to our equity line facility with Aspire Capital Fund, LLC.

 

5

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

 

We may issue ordinary shares pursuant to this prospectus. The following summarizes the material rights of holders of ordinary shares, as set out in our Articles of Association. The following summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Companies Act 2006 (the Companies Act) and to our Articles of Association, which are filed as an exhibit to this prospectus.

 

We were originally established as a private limited company under the laws of England and Wales on October 7, 2004 under the name Freshname No. 333 Limited. On January 19, 2005, we changed our name to Morria Biopharmaceuticals Limited and on February 3, 2005, we completed a reverse merger with Morria Biopharmaceuticals Inc., or Morria, a Delaware corporation, in which Morria became our wholly-owned subsidiary and we re-registered as a non-traded public limited company under the laws of England and Wales. Morria was dedicated to the discovery and development of novel, first-in-class, non-steroidal, synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. On March 22, 2011, we incorporated an Israeli subsidiary, Morria Biopharma Ltd. On June 25, 2013, we changed our name to Celsus Therapeutics Plc and on October 13, 2013 Morria was renamed Celsus Therapeutics Inc. On September 25, 2015, we further changed our name to “Akari Therapeutics, Plc”. As such our affairs are governed by our Articles of Association and English law.

 

In the following summary, a “shareholder” is the person registered in our register of members as the holder of the relevant securities. For those ordinary shares that have been deposited in our ADS facility pursuant to our deposit agreement with Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, or its nominee is deemed the shareholder.

 

Share Capital

 

Our board of directors is generally authorized to issue up to 6,800,000,000 ordinary shares of $0.0001 each until June 28, 2022, without seeking shareholder approval, subject to certain limitations. As of September 30, 2020, there were 112,649,035 ordinary shares outstanding, outstanding options to purchase 74,649,035 ordinary shares and 232,098,427 ordinary shares available for future issuance under our 2014 Equity Incentive Compensation Plan. All of our existing issued ordinary shares are fully paid. Accordingly, no further capital may be required by us from the holders of such shares.

 

The rights and restrictions to which the ordinary shares will be subject are prescribed in our Articles of Association. Our Articles of Association permit our board of directors, with shareholder approval, to determine the terms of any preferred shares that we may issue. Our board of directors is authorized, having obtained the consent of the shareholders, to provide from time to time for the issuance of other classes or series of shares and to establish the characteristics of each class or series, including the number of shares, designations, relative voting rights, dividend rights, liquidation and other rights, redemption, repurchase or exchange rights and any other preferences and relative, participating, optional or other rights and limitations not inconsistent with applicable law.

 

English law does not recognize fractional shares held of record. Accordingly, our Articles of Association do not provide for the issuance of fractional ordinary shares, and our official English share register will not reflect any fractional shares.

 

We are not permitted under English law to hold our own ordinary shares unless they are repurchased by us and held in treasury.

 

During the three years ended September 30, 2020, we have issued an aggregate of 2,208,879,720 ordinary shares, options to purchase an aggregate of 67,950,000 ordinary shares and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 462,160,100 ordinary shares.

 

Issuance of Options and Warrants

 

Our Articles of Association provide that, subject to any shareholder approval requirement under any laws, regulations or the rules of any stock exchange to which we are subject, our board of directors is authorized, from time to time, in its discretion, to grant such persons, for such periods and upon such terms as it deems advisable, options to purchase such number of shares of any class or classes or of any series of any class as our board of directors may deem advisable, and to cause warrants or other appropriate instruments evidencing such options to be issued. The Companies Act provides that directors may issue options or warrants without shareholder approval once authorized to do so by the Articles of Association or an ordinary resolution of shareholders. Our board of directors may issue shares upon exercise of options or warrants without shareholder approval or authorization, up to the relevant authorized share capital limit.

 

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Dividends

 

Our Articles of Association provide that our board of directors may, subject to the applicable provisions of the Companies Act, from time to time, declare such dividend as may appear to the board of directors to be justified by the distributable profits of the Company. Subject to the rights of the holders of shares with preferential or other special rights that may be authorized in the future, holders of ordinary shares are entitled to receive dividends according to their rights and interest in our distributable profits. Dividends, to the extent declared, are distributed according to the proportion of the nominal value paid up on account of the shares held at the date so appointed by the Company, without regard to the premium paid in excess of the nominal value, if any. A company may only distribute a dividend out of the company’s distributable profits, as defined under the Companies Act.

 

Any dividend unclaimed after a period of twelve years from the date of declaration of such dividend shall be forfeited and shall revert to us. In addition, the payment by the board of directors of any unclaimed dividend, interest or other sum payable on or in respect of an ordinary share into a separate account shall not constitute us as a trustee in respect thereof.

 

Rights in a Liquidation

 

In the event of our liquidation, subject to applicable law, after satisfaction of liabilities to creditors, our assets will be distributed to the holders of ordinary shares in proportion to their respective holdings. This liquidation right may be affected by the grant of preferential dividends or distribution rights to the holders of a class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future.

 

Voting Rights

 

Holders of ordinary shares have one vote for each ordinary share held on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders. These voting rights may be affected by the grant of any special voting rights to the holders of a class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future.

 

The ordinary shares do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. As a result, holders of ordinary shares that represent more than 50% of the voting power at the general meeting of shareholders, in person or by proxy, have the power to elect all the directors whose positions are being filled at that meeting to the exclusion of the remaining shareholders. Each director must retire at the next annual general meeting after the end of his appointment term of one, two or three years. In any two year period, a majority of the directors must stand for re-election or replacement. In the event that this majority has not been met and the number of directors eligible for retirement by rotation under the provision of our Articles of Association is not met, any further directors to retire are those who have been in office the longest since their last appointment or re-appointment, but as between persons who became or were last re-appointed directors on the same day, those to retire are determined by the Board of Directors at the recommendation of the Chairman. A retiring director is eligible for re-appointment, subject to the terms of our Articles of Association.

 

The actions necessary to change the rights of holders of the ordinary shares are as follows: the rights of the shareholders would need to be altered by way of a special resolution requiring 75% vote of the shareholders who are present and voting in person or by proxy. In order to change the rights of a separate class of shares, it will require such a vote by shareholders of that class of shares.

 

Preemptive Rights

 

There are no rights of pre-emption under our Articles of Association in respect of transfers of issued ordinary shares. In certain circumstances, our shareholders have preemptive rights with respect to new issuances of equity securities.  However our board of directors is generally authorized to allot equity securities for cash without triggering shareholder preemptive rights, provided that this power shall (i) be limited to the allotment of equity securities up to an aggregate nominal amount of $680,000; and (ii) expire (unless previously revoked or varied by us), on June 28, 2022.

 

Transfer of Shares

 

Fully paid ordinary shares are issued in registered form and may be transferred pursuant to our Articles of Association, unless such transfer is restricted or prohibited by another instrument and subject to applicable securities laws. The Articles of Association state that the directors of the Company may refuse to authorize a transfer of shares if the shares in question have not been paid in full and are therefore only partly paid.

 

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Limitation on Owning Securities

 

Our Articles of Association do not restrict in any way the ownership or voting of ordinary shares by non-residents. If the Company serves a demand on a person under section 793 of the Companies Act, that person will be required to disclose any interest he has in the shares of the Company.

 

Fiduciary Duties of Office Holders

 

Directors owe fiduciary duties to their companies. Chapter 2 of Part 10 of the Companies Act codifies certain of those duties. The relevant statutory duties imposed on directors under the Companies Act are:

 

  · to act in accordance with the company's constitution, and only exercise powers for the purposes for which they are conferred;

 

  · to act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole;

 

  · to exercise independent judgment;
     
  · to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence, being such as would be exercised by a reasonably diligent person with the general knowledge, skill and experience that may reasonably be expected of a person carrying out the functions carried out by the director, and the general knowledge, skill and experience that the director has;

 

  · to avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly may conflict, with the interests of the company (including in particular through exploitation of any property, information or opportunity) unless authorized by the company or its board;

 

  · not to accept benefits from third parties; and

 

  · to declare an interest in a proposed transaction or arrangement.

 

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In addition, certain additional duties are imposed by the common law, such as a duty of confidentiality.

 

Disclosure of Personal Interests of an Officer Holder

 

The Companies Act requires a director to disclose to the board any direct or indirect personal interest that he or she may have in connection with any existing or proposed transaction by the company. The disclosure is required to be made promptly and, in the case of a proposed transaction, before it is entered into. All transactions in which a director has an interest must be declared, and not only those that are extraordinary transactions.

 

Except as provided in our Articles of Association, a director may not vote at a meeting of the board or of a committee of the board on any resolution concerning a matter:

 

  · in which he (directly or indirectly) has a material interest, other than an interest in shares or debentures or other securities of or in (or through) the Company; and

 

  · subject to the Companies Act, which conflicts or may conflict with the interests of the Company.

 

A director is not counted in the quorum at a meeting in relation to any resolution on which he is debarred from voting.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a director is entitled to vote and be counted in the quorum in respect of any resolution concerning any of the following matters:

 

  · the giving of any security, guarantee or indemnity to a third party in respect of a debt or obligation of the Company or any of our subsidiaries for which he himself has assumed responsibility in whole or in part under a guarantee or indemnity or by the giving of security;

 

  · any proposal concerning an offer of shares or debentures or other securities of or by the Company or any of our subsidiaries for subscription or purchase in which offer he is or is to be interested as a participant as the holder of such shares, debentures or other securities or in its underwriting or sub-underwriting;

 

  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or other proposal concerning any other company in which he (together with any person connected with him) is interested (directly or indirectly) whether as an officer, shareholder, creditor or otherwise, unless he (together with any person connected with him) holds an interest representing one per cent. or more of any class of the equity share capital (exclusive of treasury shares) of such company or of the voting rights available to members of the relevant company;

 

  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or other proposal concerning the adoption, modification or operation of a superannuation fund or retirement, death or disability benefits scheme under which he may benefit and which has been approved by or is subject to and conditional upon approval by Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs;

 

  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or proposal concerning the adoption, modification or operation of any scheme for enabling employees, including full time executive directors of the Company or any of our subsidiaries to acquire shares of the Company or any arrangement for the benefit of employees of the Company or any of our subsidiaries, which does not award him any privilege or benefit not awarded to the employees to whom such scheme relates; or

 

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  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or proposal concerning insurance which the Company proposes to maintain or purchase for the benefit of directors or for the benefit of persons including directors.

 

Article 27 of the Articles of Association states, that the board may authorize any matter which may otherwise involve a director breaching his duties under certain sections of the Companies Act to avoid conflicts of interest.

 

Any director (including the director which has the conflict) may propose that such conflicted director be authorized in relation to any matter which is the subject of such a conflict. The director with the conflict will not count towards the quorum at the meeting at which the conflict is considered and may not vote on any resolution authorizing the conflict. Where the board gives authority in relation to such a conflict, the board may impose such terms on the relevant director as it deems appropriate.

 

Directors’ and Officers’ Compensation

 

The Companies Act requires that a resolution approving provisions to appoint a director for a fixed period of more than two years must not be passed unless a memorandum setting out the proposed contract incorporating the provision is made available to members: in the case of a resolution at a meeting, by being made available for inspection by members of the company both (i) at the company’s registered office for not less than 15 days ending with the date of the meeting, and (ii) at the meeting itself.

 

Directors’ Borrowing Powers

 

Our board of directors may, from time to time, in its discretion, cause us to borrow or secure the payment of any sum or sums of money for the purposes of our company.

 

Retirement of Directors

 

We do not have any age limitations for our directors, nor do we have mandatory retirement as a result of reaching a certain age.

 

Share Qualification of Directors

 

No shareholding qualification is required by a director.

 

Redemption Provisions

 

We may, subject to applicable law and to our Articles of Association, issue redeemable shares and redeem the same.

 

Capital Calls

 

Under our Articles of Association and the Companies Act, the liability of our shareholders is limited to the nominal value (i.e. par). The board of directors has the authority to make calls upon the shareholders in respect of any money unpaid on their shares and each shareholder shall pay to us as required by such notice the amount called on his shares. If a call remains unpaid after it has become due and payable, and the fourteen days’ notice provided by the board of directors has not been complied with, any share in respect of which such notice was given may be forfeited by a resolution of the board.

 

No Sinking Fund

 

Our ordinary shares do not have sinking fund provisions.

 

Modification of Rights

 

Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, if at any time our capital is divided into different classes of shares, the rights attached to any class may be varied or abrogated with the consent in writing of the holders of at least three-fourths in nominal value of that class or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of that class, but not otherwise. The quorum at any such meeting is two or more persons holding, or representing by proxy, at least one-third in nominal value of the issued shares in question.

 

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Shareholders’ Meetings and Resolutions

 

Pursuant to our Articles of Association, the quorum required for an ordinary meeting of shareholders consists of at least two shareholders present in person or by proxy, who hold in aggregate more than 15% of our issued share capital. If at any time the Company has only one shareholder, such shareholder, in person, by proxy or, if a corporation, by its representative, shall constitute a quorum. A meeting adjourned for lack of a quorum generally is adjourned to the same day in the following week at the same time and place or any time and place as the chairman of the board may designate. Furthermore, the board of the company may call a general meeting whenever they think fit. If the Board, in its absolute discretion, considers that it is impractical or unreasonable for any reason to hold a general meeting on the date or at the time or place specified in the notice calling the general meeting, it may postpone the general meeting to another date, time and/or place.

 

Under the Companies Act, each shareholder of record must be provided at least 14 calendar days’ prior notice of any general shareholders’ meeting and 21 days’ prior notice of an annual general meeting. Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, our annual general meeting will be held at such time and place or places (any of which may be electronic facilities) as our board may determine. Our board may call a general meeting whenever it thinks fit, and must do so when required under the Companies Act. General meetings must be convened on such requisition, or in default may be convened by such requisitionists or by court order, as provided by the Companies Act.

 

Voting at any general meeting of shareholders is by a show of hands, unless a poll is demanded. A poll may be demanded by:

 

  · the chairman of the meeting;

 

  · at least five shareholders entitled to vote at the meeting;

 

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  · any shareholder or shareholders representing in the aggregate not less than one-tenth of the total voting rights of all shareholders entitled to vote at the meeting; or

 

  · any shareholder or shareholders holding shares conferring a right to vote at the meeting on which there have been paid up sums in the aggregate equal to not less than one-tenth of the total sum paid up on all the shares conferring that right.

 

In a vote by a show of hands, every shareholder who is present in person or by proxy at a general meeting has one vote. In a vote on a poll, every shareholder who is present in person or by proxy shall have one vote for every share of which they are registered as the holder (provided that no shareholder shall have more than one vote on a show of hands notwithstanding that he may have appointed more than one proxy to vote on his behalf). The quorum for a shareholders’ meeting is a minimum of two persons holding at least 15% of the share capital, present in person or by proxy.

 

Holders of ADSs are entitled to vote by supplying their voting instructions to Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, who, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, will vote the ordinary shares represented by their ADSs in accordance with their instructions. The ability of Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations, the terms of the deposit agreement, the terms of our Articles of Association, and the terms of the ordinary shares on deposit. We cannot assure the holders of our ADSs that they will receive voting materials in time to enable them to return voting instructions to Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, in a timely manner.

 

Unless otherwise required by law or the Articles of Association, voting in a general meeting is by ordinary resolution. An ordinary resolution is approved by a majority vote of the shareholders present at a meeting at which there is a quorum. Examples of matters that can be approved by an ordinary resolution include:

 

  · the election of directors;

 

  · the approval of financial statements;

 

  · the declaration of final dividends;

 

  · the appointment of auditors; and

 

  · the grant of authority to allot shares.

 

A special resolution requires the affirmative vote of not less than three-fourths of the eligible votes cast. Examples of matters that must be approved by a special resolution include changes to the Articles of Association, or our winding-up.

 

Limitation on Owning Securities

 

Our Articles of Association do not restrict in any way the ownership or voting of ordinary shares by non-residents. Furthermore, there is no general obligation for a shareholder of a U.K. company which is not listed in the U.K. or E.U. to voluntarily disclose his shareholding unless required to do so by the Company. If the Company serves a demand on a person under section 793 of the Companies Act, that person will be required to disclose any interest he has in the shares of the Company.

 

Change in Control

 

We can issue additional shares with any rights or restrictions attached to them as long as the Company is not restricted by any rights attached to existing shares. These rights or restrictions can be decided by the directors so long as there is no conflict with any resolution passed by the shareholders. The ability of the directors to issue shares with rights or restrictions that are different than those attached to the currently outstanding ordinary shares could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing change of control of our Company.

 

In addition, our board of directors is divided into three classes for purposes of election. One class is elected at each annual general meeting to serve for a three-year term. Because this would prevent shareholders from replacing the entire board at a single meeting, this provision could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our Company.

 

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Differences in Corporate Law Between England and the State Of Delaware

 

As a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, the rights of our shareholders are governed by applicable English law, including the Companies Act, and not by the law of any U.S. state. As a result, our directors and shareholders are subject to different responsibilities, rights and privileges than are applicable to directors and shareholders of U.S. corporations. We have set below a summary of the differences between the provisions of the Companies Act applicable to us and the Delaware General Corporation Law relating to shareholders’ rights and protections. This summary is not intended to be a complete discussion of the respective rights and it is qualified in its entirety by reference to English law, Delaware law and our Articles of Association. Before investing, you should consult your legal advisor regarding the impact of English corporate law on your specific circumstances and reasons for investing. The summary below does not include a description of rights or obligations under the U.S. federal securities laws or Nasdaq listing requirements. You are also urged to carefully read the relevant provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Companies Act for a more complete understanding of the differences between Delaware and English law.

 

    Delaware   England
Number of Directors   Under Delaware law, a corporation must have at least one director and the number of directors shall be fixed by or in the manner provided in the bylaws, unless specified in the certificate of incorporation.   Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must have at least two directors and the number of directors may be fixed by or in the manner provided in a company’s articles of association.

 

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    Delaware   England
Removal of Directors   Under Delaware law, directors may be removed from office, with or without cause, by a majority shareholder vote, except (a) in the case of a corporation whose board is classified, shareholders may effect such removal only for cause, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, and (b) in the case of a corporation having cumulative voting, if less than the entire board is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against his or her removal would be sufficient to elect him or her if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire board of directors, or, if there are classes of directors, at an election of the class of directors of which he or she is a part.   Under the Companies Act, shareholders may remove a director without cause by an ordinary resolution (which is passed by a simple majority of those voting in person or by proxy at a general meeting) irrespective of any provisions of any service contract the director has with the company, provided that 28 clear days’ notice of the resolution is given to the company and certain other procedural requirements under the Companies Act are followed (such as allowing the director to make representations against his or her removal at the meeting and/or in writing).
         
Vacancies on the Board of Directors   Under Delaware law, vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office (even though less than a quorum) or by a sole remaining director unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the corporation.   Under English law, the procedure by which directors (other than a company’s initial directors) are appointed is generally set out in a company’s articles of association, provided that where two or more persons are appointed as directors of a public limited company by resolution of the shareholders, resolutions appointing each director must be voted on individually unless a resolution of the shareholders that such resolutions do not have to be voted on individually is first agreed to by the meeting without any vote being given against it.
         
Annual General Meeting   Under Delaware law, the annual meeting of shareholders shall be held at such place, on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or as provided in the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.   Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must hold an annual general meeting each year. This meeting must be held within six months beginning with the day following the company’s accounting reference date.
         
General Meeting   Under Delaware law, special meetings of the shareholders may be called by the board of directors or by such person or persons as may be authorized by the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.   Under the Companies Act, a general meeting of the shareholders of a public limited company may be called by the directors. Shareholders holding at least 5% of the paid-up capital (excluding any paid-up capital held as treasury shares) of the company carrying voting rights at general meetings can also require the directors to call a general meeting.
         
Notice of General Meetings   Under Delaware law, written notice of any meeting of the shareholders must be given to each shareholder entitled to vote at the meeting not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting and shall specify the place, date, hour and purpose or purposes of the meeting.  

The Companies Act provides that a general meeting (other than an adjourned meeting) must be called by notice of:

 

•      in the case of an annual general meeting, at least 21 days; and

 

•      in any other case, at least 14 days.

        The company’s articles of association may provide for a longer period of notice and, in addition, certain matters (such as the removal of directors or auditors) require special notice, which is 28 clear days’ notice. The shareholders of a company may in all cases consent to a shorter notice period, the proportion of shareholders’ consent required being 100% of those entitled to attend and vote in the case of an annual general meeting and, in the case of any other general meeting, a majority in number of the members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, being a majority who together hold not less than 95% in nominal value of the shares giving a right to attend and vote at the meeting.

 

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    Delaware   England
Quorum   The certificate of incorporation or bylaws may specify the number of shares, the holders of which shall be present or represented by proxy at any meeting in order to constitute a quorum, but in no event shall a quorum consist of less than 1/3 of the shares entitled to vote at the meeting. In the absence of such specification in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, a majority of the shares entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of shareholders.   Subject to the provisions of a company’s articles of association, the Companies Act provides that two shareholders present at a meeting (in person or by proxy) shall constitute a quorum.
         
Proxy   Under Delaware law, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to act for such shareholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.   Under the Companies Act, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to attend, speak and vote at the meeting on their behalf by proxy (or, in the case of a shareholder which is a corporate body, by way of a corporate representative).
         
Issue of New Shares   Under Delaware law, if the company’s certificate of incorporation so provides, the directors have the power to authorize additional stock. The directors may authorize capital stock to be issued for consideration consisting of cash, any tangible or intangible property or any benefit to the company or any combination thereof.  

Under the Companies Act, the directors of a company must not exercise any power to allot shares or grant rights to subscribe for, or to convert any security into, shares unless they are authorized to do so by the company’s articles of association or by an ordinary resolution of the shareholders.

 

Any authorization given must state the maximum amount of shares that may be allotted under it and specify the date on which it will expire, which must be not more than five years from the date the authorization was given. The authority can be renewed by a further resolution of the shareholders.

         
Pre-emptive Rights   Under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in a corporation’s certificate of incorporation, a stockholder does not, by operation of law, possess pre-emptive rights to subscribe to additional issuances of the corporation’s stock.   Under the Companies Act, “equity securities” (being (i) shares in the company other than shares that, with respect to dividends and capital, carry a right to participate only up to a specified amount in a distribution (“ordinary shares”) or (ii) rights to subscribe for, or to convert securities into, ordinary shares) proposed to be allotted for cash must be offered first to the existing equity shareholders in the company in proportion to the respective nominal value of their holdings, unless an exception applies or a special resolution to the contrary has been passed by shareholders in a general meeting or the articles of association provide otherwise in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act.

 

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    Delaware   England
Liability of Directors and Officers  

Under Delaware law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may include a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation and its shareholders for monetary damages arising from a breach of fiduciary duty as a director. However, no provision can limit the liability of a director for:

 

•    any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its shareholders;

 

•    acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

•    willful or negligent payment of unlawful dividends or stock purchases or redemptions; or

 

•    any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.

 

Under the Companies Act, any provision (whether contained in a company’s articles of association or any contract or otherwise) that purports to exempt a director of a company (to any extent) from any liability that would otherwise attach to him in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company is void.

 

Any provision by which a company directly or indirectly provides an indemnity (to any extent) for a director of the company or of an associated company against any liability attaching to him in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company of which he or she is a director is also void except as permitted by the Companies Act, which provides exceptions for the company to: (i) purchase and maintain insurance against such liability; (ii) provide a “qualifying third party indemnity” (being an indemnity against liability incurred by the director to a person other than the company or an associated company, which must not cover fines imposed in criminal proceedings, penalties imposed by regulatory bodies arising out of non-compliance with regulatory requirements, the defense costs of criminal proceedings where the director is found guilty, the defense costs of civil proceedings successfully brought against the director by the company or an associated company, or the costs of unsuccessful applications by the director for certain reliefs); and (iii) provide a “qualifying pension scheme indemnity” (being an indemnity against liability incurred in connection with the company’s activities as trustee of an occupational pension plan).

         
Voting Rights   Delaware law provides that, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each shareholder of record is entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such shareholder.  

Under English law, unless a poll is demanded by the shareholders of a company or is required by the Chairman of the meeting or the company’s articles of association, shareholders shall vote on all resolutions on a show of hands.

 

       

Under the Companies Act, a poll may be demanded by: (i) not fewer than five shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution; (ii) any shareholder(s) representing at least 10% of the total voting rights of all the shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution (excluding any voting rights attached to treasury shares); or (iii) any shareholder (s) holding shares in the company conferring a right to vote on the resolution being shares on which an aggregate sum has been paid up equal to not less than 10% of the total sum paid up on all the shares conferring that right. A company’s articles of association may provide more extensive rights for shareholders to call a poll.

 

        Under English law, an ordinary resolution is passed on a show of hands if it is approved by a simple majority (more than 50%) of the votes cast by shareholders present (in person or by proxy) and entitled to vote. If a poll is demanded, an ordinary resolution is passed if it is approved by holders representing a simple majority of the total voting rights of shareholders present (in person or by proxy) who (being entitled to vote) vote on the resolution. Special resolutions require the affirmative vote of not less than 75% of the votes cast by shareholders present (in person or by proxy) at the meeting.

 

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    Delaware   England
Variation of Class Rights   Under Delaware law, the holders of the outstanding shares of a class shall be entitled to vote as a class upon a proposed amendment, whether or not entitled to vote thereon by the certificate of incorporation, if the amendment would increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of such class, increase or decrease the par value of the shares of such class, or alter or change the powers, preferences or special rights of the shares of such class so as to affect them adversely.  

The Companies Act provides that rights attached to a class of shares may only be varied or abrogated in accordance with provision in the company’s articles for the variation or abrogation of those rights or, where the company’s articles contain no such provision, if the holders of shares of that class consent to the variation or abrogation. Consent for these purposes means:

 

•    consent in writing from the holders of at least 75% in nominal value of the issued shares of that class (excluding any shares held as treasury shares); or

 

•    a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of that class sanctioning the variation.

       

 

The Companies Act provides that the quorum for a class meeting is not less than two persons holding or representing by proxy at least one-third of the nominal value of the issued shares of that class. Following a variation of class rights, shareholders who amount to not less than 15% of the shareholders of the class in question who did not approve the variation may apply to court to have the variation cancelled. Any application must be made within 21 days of the variation. The court may cancel the variation if it is satisfied having regard to all the circumstances of the case that the variation would unfairly prejudice the shareholders of the class represented by the applicant.

         
Shareholder Vote on Certain Transactions  

Generally, under Delaware law, unless the certificate of incorporation provides for the vote of a larger portion of the stock, completion of a merger, consolidation, sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of a corporation’s assets or dissolution requires:

 

•    the approval of the board of directors; and

 

•    approval by the vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding stock or, if the certificate of incorporation provides for more or less than one vote per share, a majority of the votes of the outstanding stock of a corporation entitled to vote on the matter.

 

Under Delaware law, a contract or transaction between the company and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the company and any other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers, are directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall not be void solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer participates in the meeting of the board which authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because any such director’s or officer’s votes are counted for such purpose, if:

 

•    the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the board, and the board in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum;

 

•    the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the shareholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the shareholders; or

 

•    the contract or transaction is fair as to the corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified, by the board of directors, a committee or the shareholders.

 

The Companies Act provides for schemes of arrangement, which are arrangements or compromises between a company and any class of shareholders or creditors that may be used in certain types of reconstructions, amalgamations, capital reorganizations or takeovers. These arrangements require:

 

•    the approval at a shareholders’ or creditors’ meeting convened by order of the court, of a majority in number of shareholders or creditors representing 75% in value of the capital held by, or debt owed to, the class of shareholders or creditors, or class thereof present and voting, either in person or by proxy; and

 

•    the approval of the court.

 

Once approved, sanctioned and effective, all shareholders or creditors of the relevant class and the company are bound by the terms of the scheme.

 

In addition, the Companies Act provides for restructuring plans, which may be used by a company only for the purpose of reducing or mitigating the effects of financial difficulties it is encountering that may affect its ability to carry on business as a going concern. These plans are similar to schemes of arrangement, but: the only shareholder or creditor approval required is that of shareholders or creditors representing 75% in value of the capital held by, or debt owed to, the members present and voting of one class of shareholders or creditors that would have a genuine economic interest in the company if the plan were not approved; and if that approval is obtained, members of any other class of shareholders or creditors will be bound by the restructuring plan if they will not as a result be worse off than if the plan were not approved and the court grants its approval.

 

The Companies Act also contains certain provisions relating to transactions between a director and the company, including transactions involving the acquisition of substantial non-cash assets from a director or the sale of substantial noncash assets to a director, and loans between a company and a director or certain connected persons of directors. If such transactions meet certain thresholds set out within the Companies Act the approval of shareholders by ordinary resolution will be required.

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Standard of Conduct for Directors   Delaware law does not contain specific provisions setting forth the standard of conduct of a director. The scope of the fiduciary duties of directors is generally determined by the courts of the State of Delaware. In general, directors have a duty to act without self-interest, on a well-informed basis and in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interest of the shareholders. Directors of a Delaware corporation owe fiduciary duties of care and loyalty to the corporation and to its shareholders. The duty of care generally requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself or herself of all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director act in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. The director must not use his or her corporate position for personal gain or advantage. In addition, under Delaware law, when the board of directors of a Delaware corporation approves the sale or break-up of a corporation, the board of directors may, in certain circumstances, have a duty to obtain the highest value reasonably available to the shareholders.  

Under English law, a director owes various statutory and fiduciary duties to the company, including:

 

•    to act in the way he or she considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its shareholders as a whole;

 

•    to avoid a situation in which he or she has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly may conflict, with the interests of the company;

 

•    to act in accordance with the company’s constitution and only exercise his or her powers for the purposes for which they are conferred;

 

•    to exercise independent judgment;

 

•    to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence;

 

•    not to accept benefits from a third party conferred by reason of his or her being a director or doing (or not doing) anything as a director; and

 

•    to declare any interest that he or she has, whether directly or indirectly, in a proposed or existing transaction or arrangement with the company.

         
Shareholder Suits  

Under Delaware law, a shareholder may initiate a derivative action to enforce a right of a corporation if the corporation fails to enforce the right itself. The complaint must:

 

•    state that the plaintiff was a shareholder at the time of the transaction of which the plaintiff complains or that the plaintiff’s shares thereafter devolved on the plaintiff by operation of law; and

 

•    allege with particularity the efforts made by the plaintiff to obtain the action the plaintiff desires from the directors and the reasons for the plaintiff’s failure to obtain the action; or

 

•    state the reasons for not making the effort. Additionally, the plaintiff must remain a shareholder through the duration of the derivative suit.

  Under English law, generally, the company, rather than its shareholders, is the proper claimant in an action in respect of a wrong done to the company or where there is an irregularity in the company’s internal management. Notwithstanding this general position, the Companies Act provides that (i) a court may allow a shareholder to bring a derivative claim (that is, an action in respect of and on behalf of the company) in respect of a cause of action arising from a director’s negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust, subject to complying with the procedural requirements under the Companies Act and (ii) a shareholder may bring a claim for a court order where the company’s affairs have been or are being conducted in a manner that is unfairly prejudicial to some or all of its shareholders.

 

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Other U.K. Law Considerations

 

Squeeze-Out

 

Under the Companies Act, if a takeover offer (as defined in Section 974 of the Companies Act) is made for the shares of a company and the offeror were to acquire, or unconditionally contract to acquire: (i) not less than 90% in value of the shares to which the takeover offer relates (the “Takeover Offer Shares”); and (ii) where those shares are voting shares, not less than 90% of the voting rights attached to the Takeover Offer Shares, the offeror could acquire compulsorily the remaining 10% within three months of the day after the last day on which its offer can be accepted. It would do so by sending a notice to outstanding shareholders telling them that it will acquire compulsorily their Takeover Offer Shares and then, six weeks later, it would execute a transfer of the outstanding Takeover Offer Shares in its favor and pay the consideration to the company, which would hold the consideration on trust for outstanding shareholders. The consideration offered to the shareholders whose Takeover Offer Shares are acquired compulsorily under the Companies Act must, in general, be the same as the consideration that was available under the takeover offer.

 

Sell-Out

 

The Companies Act also gives minority shareholders a right to be bought out in certain circumstances by an offeror who has made a takeover offer (as defined in Section 974 of the Companies Act). If a takeover offer related to all the shares of a company and, at any time before the end of the period within which the offer could be accepted, the offeror held or had agreed to acquire not less than 90% of the shares to which the offer relates, any holder of the shares to which the offer related who had not accepted the offer could by a written communication to the offeror require it to acquire those shares. The offeror is required to give any shareholder notice of his or her right to be bought out within one month of that right arising. The offeror may impose a time limit on the rights of the minority shareholders to be bought out, but that period cannot end less than three months after the end of the acceptance period. If a shareholder exercises his or her rights, the offeror is bound to acquire those shares on the terms of the offer or on such other terms as may be agreed.

 

Disclosure of Interest in Shares

 

Pursuant to Part 22 of the Companies Act, a company is empowered by notice in writing to require any person whom the company knows to be, or has reasonable cause to believe to be, interested in the company’s shares or at any time during the three years immediately preceding the date on which the notice is issued to have been so interested, within a reasonable time to disclose to the company details of that person’s interest and (so far as is within such person’s knowledge) details of any other interest that subsists or subsisted in those shares. If a shareholder defaults in supplying the company with the required details in relation to the shares in question (the “Default Shares”), the shareholder shall not be entitled to vote or exercise any other right conferred by membership in relation to general meetings. Where the Default Shares represent 0.25% or more of the issued shares of the class in question, in certain circumstances the directors may direct that:

 

  (i) any dividend or other money payable in respect of the Default Shares shall be retained by the company without any liability to pay interest on it when such dividend or other money is finally paid to the shareholder; and/or
     
  (ii) no transfer by the relevant shareholder of shares (other than a transfer approved in accordance with the provisions of the company’s articles of association) may be registered (unless such shareholder is not in default and the transfer does not relate to Default Shares).

 

Dividends

 

Under English law, before a company can lawfully make a distribution, it must ensure that it has sufficient distributable reserves. A company’s distributable reserves are its accumulated, realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less its accumulated, realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital duly made. In addition to having sufficient distributable reserves, a public company will not be permitted to make a distribution if, at the time, the amount of its net assets (that is, the aggregate of the company’s assets less the aggregate of its liabilities) is less than the aggregate of its issued and paid-up share capital and undistributable reserves, or if the distribution would result in the amount of its net assets being less than that aggregate.

 

Purchase of Own Shares

 

Under English law, a public limited company may purchase its own shares only out of the distributable profits of the company or the proceeds of a new issue of shares made for the purpose of financing the purchase, provided that it is not restricted from doing so by its articles. A public limited company may not purchase its own shares if as a result of the purchase there would no longer be any issued shares of the company other than redeemable shares or shares held as treasury shares. Shares must be fully paid in order to be repurchased.

 

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Subject to the foregoing, because Nasdaq is not a “recognized investment exchange” under the Companies Act, a company may purchase its own fully paid shares only pursuant to a purchase contract authorized by ordinary resolution of the holders of its ordinary shares before the purchase takes place. Any authority will not be effective if any shareholder from whom the company proposes to purchase shares votes on the resolution and the resolution would not have been passed if such shareholder had not done so. The resolution authorizing the purchase must specify a date, not being later than five years after the passing of the resolution, on which the authority to purchase is to expire.

 

A share buy-back by a company of its ordinary shares will give rise to U.K. stamp duty at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration payable by the company, and such stamp duty will be paid by the company. Our Articles of Association do not have conditions governing changes in our capital which are more stringent than those required by law.

 

Statutory Pre-Emption Rights

 

Under English law, a company must not allot equity securities to a person on any terms unless the following conditions are satisfied:

 

  (i) it has made an offer to each person who holds ordinary shares in the company to allot to them on the same or more favorable terms a proportion of those securities that is as nearly as practicable equal to the proportion in nominal value held by them of the ordinary share capital of the company; and
     
  (ii) the period during which any such offer may be accepted has expired or the company has received notice of the acceptance or refusal of every offer so made.

 

For these purposes “equity securities” means ordinary shares in the company or rights to subscribe for, or to convert securities into, ordinary shares in the company. “Ordinary shares” means shares other than shares that, with respect to dividends and capital, carry a right to participate only up to a specified amount in a distribution. The statutory pre-emption rights are subject to certain exceptions, including the issue of ordinary shares for non-cash consideration, an allotment of bonus shares and the allotment of equity securities pursuant to an employees’ share scheme. The statutory pre-emption rights may also be disapplied by a resolution approved by 75% of the shareholders who vote on it.

 

U.K. City Code on Takeovers and Mergers

 

The U.K. City Code on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Takeover Code, applies, among other things, to an offer for a public company whose registered office is in the United Kingdom and whose securities are not admitted to trading on a regulated market in the United Kingdom if the company is considered by the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Takeover Panel, to have its place of central management and control in the United Kingdom. This is known as the “residency test.” The test for central management and control under the Takeover Code is different from that used by the U.K. tax authorities. Under the Takeover Code, the Takeover Panel will determine whether we have our place of central management and control in the United Kingdom by looking at various factors, including the structure of our board of directors, the functions of the directors and where they are resident. Whilst the Takeover Panel has not informed us of any such determination, on account of the current constitution of our board, we believe that we are currently subject to the Takeover Code.

 

If at the time of a takeover offer the Takeover Panel determines that we have our place of central management and control in the United Kingdom, we would be subject to a number of rules and restrictions, including but not limited to the following: (1) our ability to enter into deal protection arrangements with a bidder would be extremely limited; (2) we may not, without the approval of our shareholders, be able to perform certain actions that could have the effect of frustrating an offer, such as issuing shares or carrying out acquisitions or disposals; and (3) we would be obliged to provide equality of information to all bona fide competing bidders.

 

Further, the Takeover Code contains certain rules in respect of mandatory offers. Under Rule 9 of the Takeover Code, if a person: (a) acquires an interest in our shares which, when taken together with shares in which he or persons acting in concert with him are interested, carry 30% or more of the voting rights of our shares; or (b) who, together with persons acting in concert with him, is interested in shares that in the aggregate carry not less than 30% of the voting rights in us and does not hold shares carrying more than 50% of the voting rights in us, acquires additional interests in shares that increase the percentage of shares carrying voting rights in which that person is interested, the acquirer and depending on the circumstances, its concert parties, would be required (except with the consent of the Takeover Panel) to make a cash offer for our outstanding shares at a price not less than the highest price paid for any interests in the shares by the acquirer or its concert parties during the previous 12 months.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

American Depositary Shares

 

Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, will register and deliver the ADSs. Each ADS will represent ownership of 100 ordinary shares deposited with State Street Bank & Trust Company, having its principal office at 525 Ferry Road, Crewe Toll, Edinburgh, EH5 2AW Scotland, as custodian for the depositary. Each ADS will also represent ownership of any other securities, cash or other property which may be held by the depositary. The depositary’s corporate trust office at which the ADSs will be administered is located at 60 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005, USA. The principal executive office of the depositary is located at 60 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005, USA.

 

The Direct Registration System, or DRS, is a system administered by The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, pursuant to which the depositary may register the ownership of uncertificated ADSs, which ownership shall be evidenced by periodic statements issued by the depositary to the ADS holders entitled thereto.

 

We will not treat ADS holders as our shareholders and accordingly, you, as an ADS holder, will not have shareholder rights. English law governs shareholder rights. The depositary or its custodian will be the holder of the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. As a holder of ADSs, you will have ADS holder rights. A deposit agreement among us, the depositary and you, as an ADS holder, and the beneficial owners of ADSs sets out ADS holder rights as well as the rights and obligations of the depositary. The laws of the State of New York govern the deposit agreement and the ADSs.

 

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The following is a summary of the material provisions of the deposit agreement. For more complete information, you should read the entire deposit agreement and the form of American Depositary Receipt.

 

Holding the ADSs

 

How will you hold your ADSs?

 

You may hold ADSs either (1) directly (a) by having an American Depositary Receipt, or ADR, which is a certificate evidencing a specific number of ADSs, registered in your name, or (b) by holding ADSs in the DRS, or (2) indirectly through your broker or other financial institution. If you hold ADSs directly, you are an ADS holder. This description assumes you hold your ADSs directly. If you hold the ADSs indirectly, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or other financial institution to assert the rights of ADS holders described in this section. You should consult with your broker or financial institution to find out what those procedures are.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions

 

How will you receive dividends and other distributions on the shares?

 

The depositary has agreed to pay to ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on ordinary shares or other deposited securities, after deducting its fees and expenses. The holder of ADSs will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares their ADSs represent as of the record date (which will be as close as practicable to the record date for our ordinary shares) set by the depositary with respect to the ADSs.

 

  · Cash.   The depositary will convert any cash dividend or other cash distribution we pay on the ordinary shares or any net proceeds from the sale of any ordinary shares, rights, securities or other entitlements into U.S. dollars if it can do so on a reasonable basis, and can transfer the U.S. dollars to the United States. If that is not possible or lawful or if any government approval is needed and cannot be obtained, the deposit agreement allows the depositary to distribute the foreign currency only to those ADS holders to whom it is possible to do so. It will hold the foreign currency it cannot convert for the account of the ADS holders who have not been paid. It will not invest the foreign currency and it will not be liable for any interest.

 

  · Before making a distribution, any taxes or other governmental charges, together with fees and expenses of the depositary, that must be paid, will be deducted. See “Taxation.” It will distribute only whole U.S. dollars and cents and will round fractional cents to the nearest whole cent. If the exchange rates fluctuate during a time when the depositary cannot convert the foreign currency, you may lose some or all of the value of the distribution.

 

  · Shares.   The depositary may distribute additional ADSs representing any ordinary shares we distribute as a dividend or free distribution to the extent reasonably practicable and permissible under law. The depositary will only distribute whole ADSs. It will try to sell ordinary shares which would require it to deliver a fractional ADS and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash. If the depositary does not distribute additional ADSs, the outstanding ADSs will also represent the new ordinary shares. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed ordinary shares sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution.

 

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  · Elective Distributions in Cash or Shares. If we offer holders of our ordinary shares the option to receive dividends in either cash or shares, the depositary, after consultation with us and having received timely notice as described in the deposit agreement of such elective distribution by us, has discretion to determine to what extent such elective distribution will be made available to ADS holders. We must first instruct the depositary to make such elective distribution available to ADS holders and furnish it with satisfactory evidence that it is legal to do so. The depositary could decide it is not legal or reasonably practical to make such elective distribution available to ADS holders, or it could decide that it is only legal or reasonably practical to make such elective distribution available to some but not all holders of the ADSs. In such case, the depositary shall, on the basis of the same determination as is made in respect of the ordinary shares for which no election is made, distribute either cash in the same way as it does in a cash distribution, or additional ADSs representing ordinary shares in the same way as it does in a share distribution. The depositary is not obligated to make available to ADS holders a method to receive the elective dividend in shares rather than in ADSs. There can be no assurance that ADS holders will be given the opportunity to receive elective distributions on the same terms and conditions as the holders of ordinary shares.

 

  · Rights to Purchase Additional Shares.   If we offer holders of our ordinary shares any rights to subscribe for additional shares or any other rights, the depositary may after consultation with us and having received timely notice as described in the deposit agreement of such distribution by us, make these rights available to ADS holders. We must first instruct the depositary to make such rights available to ADS holders and furnish the depositary with satisfactory evidence that it is legal to do so. If the depositary decides it is not legal and practical to make the rights available but that it is practical to sell the rights, the depositary will use reasonable efforts to sell the rights and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash. The depositary will allow rights that are not distributed or sold to lapse. In that case, ADS holders will receive no value for them. If the depositary makes rights available to ADS holders, it will exercise the rights and purchase the shares on ADS holders’ behalf. The depositary will then deposit the shares and deliver ADSs to ADS holders. It will only exercise rights if ADS holders pay it the exercise price and any other charges the rights require that ADS holders to pay. U.S. securities laws may restrict transfers and cancellation of the ADSs represented by shares purchased upon exercise of rights. For example, ADS holders may not be able to trade these ADSs freely in the United States. In this case, the depositary may deliver restricted depositary shares that have the same terms as the ADSs described in this section except for changes needed to put the necessary restrictions in place.

 

  · Other Distributions.   Subject to receipt of timely notice from us with the request to make any such distribution available to ADS holders, and provided the depositary has determined such distribution is lawful and reasonably practicable and feasible and in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement, the depositary will send to ADS holders anything else we distribute on deposited securities by any means it thinks is legal, fair and practical. If it cannot make the distribution in that way, the depositary has a choice: it may decide to sell what we distributed and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash; or, it may decide to hold what we distributed, in which case ADSs will also represent the newly distributed property. However, the depositary is not required to distribute any securities (other than ADSs) to ADS holders unless it receives satisfactory evidence from us that it is legal to make that distribution. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed securities or property sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution.

 

  · The depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any ADS holders. We have no obligation to register ADSs, shares, rights or other securities under the Securities Act. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, shares, rights or anything else to ADS holders. This means that ADS holders may not receive the distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to ADS holders.

 

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Deposit, Withdrawal and Cancellation

 

How are ADSs issued?

 

The depositary will deliver ADSs if an ADS holders or its broker deposit ordinary shares or evidence of rights to receive ordinary shares with the custodian. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will register the appropriate number of ADSs in the names the ADS holder requests and will deliver the ADSs to or upon the order of the person or persons entitled thereto.

 

How do ADS holders cancel an American Depositary Share?

 

You may turn in your ADSs at the depositary’s corporate trust office or by providing appropriate instructions to your broker. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will deliver the ordinary shares and any other deposited securities underlying the ADSs to you or a person you designate at the office of the custodian. Or, at your request, risk and expense, the depositary will deliver the deposited securities at its corporate trust office, if feasible.

 

The depositary may refuse to accept for surrender ADSs only in the case of (i) temporary delays caused by closing our transfer books or those of the depositary or the deposit of our ordinary shares in connection with voting at a shareholders’ meeting or the payment of dividends, (ii) the payment of fees, taxes and similar charges and (iii) compliance with any laws or governmental regulations relating to depositary receipts or to the withdrawal of deposited securities. Subject thereto, in the case of surrender of a number of ADSs representing other than a whole number of our ordinary shares, the depositary will cause ownership of the appropriate whole number of our ordinary shares to be delivered in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement and will, at the discretion of the depositary, either (i) issue and deliver to the person surrendering such ADSs a new ADS representing any remaining fractional ordinary share or (ii) sell or cause to be sold the fractional ordinary shares represented by the ADSs surrendered and remit the proceeds of such sale (net of applicable fees and charges of, and expenses incurred by, the depositary and taxes and/or governmental charges) to the person surrendering the ADS.

 

How do ADS holders interchange between Certificated ADSs and Uncertificated ADSs?

 

You may surrender your ADR to the depositary for the purpose of exchanging your ADR for uncertificated ADSs. The depositary will cancel that ADR and will send you a statement confirming that you are the owner of uncertificated ADSs. Alternatively, upon receipt by the depositary of a proper instruction from a holder of uncertificated ADSs requesting the exchange of uncertificated ADSs for certificated ADSs, the depositary will execute and deliver to you an ADR evidencing those ADSs.

 

Voting Rights

 

How do you vote?

 

As an ADS holder, you may instruct the depositary to vote the deposited securities. Otherwise, you could exercise your right to vote directly if you withdraw the ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, you may not know about the meeting enough in advance to withdraw the ordinary shares.

 

If we ask for your instructions and upon timely notice from us as described in the deposit agreement, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. The materials will (1) describe the matters to be voted on and (2) explain how you may instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares or other deposited securities underlying your ADSs as you direct. Voting instructions may be given only by mail and in respect of a number of ADSs representing an integral number of our ordinary shares or other deposited securities. For instructions to be valid, the depositary must receive them on or before the date specified. The depositary will try, as far as practical, subject to the laws of the United Kingdom and the provisions of our constitutive documents, to vote or to have its agents vote the ordinary shares or other deposited securities as you instruct. The depositary will only vote or attempt to vote as you instruct.

 

We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may have no recourse if the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

 

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In order to give you a reasonable opportunity to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of voting rights relating to deposited securities, if we request the depositary to act, we are required to give the depositary 30 days’ advance notice of any such meeting and details concerning the matters to be voted upon sufficiently in advance of the meeting date, and the depositary will mail you a notice.

 

Fees and Charges

 

As a holder of American Depository Shares, or ADSs, you will be required to pay the following service fees to the depositary bank:

 

Service:   Fee:
Issuance of ADSs, including issuances resulting from a distribution of shares or rights or other property   Up to $0.05 per ADS issued
Cancellation of ADSs, including in the case of termination of the deposit agreement   Up to $0.05 per ADS cancelled
Distribution of cash dividends or other cash distributions   Up to $0.02 per ADS held
Distribution of ADSs pursuant to share dividends, free share distributions or exercise of rights   Up to $0.05 per ADS held
Operation and maintenance costs in administering the ADSs   An annual fee of $0.02 per ADS held
Inspections of the relevant share register maintained by the local registrar and/or performing due diligence on the central securities depository for England and Wales   An annual fee of $0.01 per ADS held (such fee to be assessed against holders of record as at the date or dates set by the depositary as it sees fit and collected at the sole discretion of the depositary by billing such holders for such fee or by deducting such fee from one or more cash dividends or other cash distributions)

 

As an ADS holder, you will also be responsible to pay certain fees and expenses incurred by the depositary bank and certain taxes and governmental charges such as:

 

  · Taxes (including applicable interest and penalties) and other governmental charges.

 

  · Such registration fees as may from time to time be in effect for the registration of ordinary shares or other deposited securities with the foreign registrar and applicable to transfers of ordinary shares or other deposited securities to or from the name of the custodian, the depositary or any nominees upon the making of deposits and withdrawals, respectively.

 

  · Expenses for cable, telex and fax transmissions and for delivery of securities.

 

  · Expenses and charges incurred by the Depositary in the conversion of foreign currency.

 

  · Fees and expenses incurred in connection with the delivery or servicing of ordinary shares on deposit, including any fees of a central depository for securities in the local market, where applicable.

 

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  · Fees and expenses incurred in connection with complying with exchange control regulations and any other regulatory requirements.

 

  · Any applicable fees and penalties thereon.

 

The depositary fees payable upon the issuance and cancellation of ADSs are typically paid to the depositary bank by the brokers (on behalf of their clients) receiving the newly issued ADSs from the depositary bank and by the brokers (on behalf of their clients) delivering the ADSs to the depositary bank for cancellation. The brokers in turn charge these fees to their clients. Depositary fees payable in connection with distributions of cash or securities to ADS holders and the depositary services fee are charged by the depositary bank to the holders of record of ADSs as of the applicable ADS record date.

 

The depositary may make payments to us or reimburse us for certain costs and expenses, by making available a portion of the ADS fees collected in respect of the ADR program or otherwise, upon such terms and conditions as we and the depositary bank agree from time to time.

 

In the event of refusal to pay the depositary fees, the depositary bank may, under the terms of the deposit agreement, refuse the requested service until payment is received or may set off the amount of the depositary fees from any distribution to be made to the ADS holder.

 

The depositary has agreed to reimburse us for a portion of certain expenses we incur that are related to establishment and maintenance of the American Depository Receipt, or ADR, program, including investor relations expenses. There are limits on the amount of expenses for which the depositary will reimburse us, but the amount of reimbursement available to us is not related to the amounts of fees the depositary collects from investors. Further, the depositary has agreed to reimburse us certain fees payable to the depositary by holders of ADSs. Neither the depositary nor we can determine the exact amount to be made available to us because (i) the number of ADSs that will be issued and outstanding, (ii) the level of service fees to be charged to holders of ADSs and (iii) our reimbursable expenses related to the program are not known at this time.

 

Payment of Taxes

 

As an ADS holder, you will be responsible for any taxes or other governmental charges payable on your ADSs or on the deposited securities represented by any of your ADSs. The depositary may refuse to register any transfer of your ADSs or allow you to withdraw the deposited securities represented by your ADSs until such taxes or other charges are paid. It may apply payments owed to you or sell deposited securities represented by your ADSs to pay any taxes owed and you will remain liable for any deficiency. If the depositary sells deposited securities, it will, if appropriate, reduce the number of ADSs to reflect the sale and pay to you any net proceeds, or send to you any property, remaining after it has paid the taxes. You agree to indemnify us, the depositary, the custodian and each of our and their respective agents, directors, employees and affiliates for, and hold each of them harmless from, any claims with respect to taxes (including applicable interest and penalties thereon) arising from any tax benefit obtained for you.

 

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Reclassifications, Recapitalizations and Mergers

 

If we:   Then:
Change the nominal or par value of our ordinary shares   The cash, shares or other securities received by the depositary will become deposited securities.
Reclassify, split up or consolidate any of the deposited securities   Each ADS will automatically represent its equal share of the new deposited securities.
Distribute securities on the ordinary shares that are not distributed to you or recapitalize, reorganize, merge, liquidate, sell all or substantially all of our assets, or take any similar action   The depositary may distribute some or all of the cash, shares or other securities it received. It may also deliver new ADSs or ask you to surrender your outstanding ADRs in exchange for new ADRs identifying the new deposited securities.

 

Amendment and Termination

 

How may the deposit agreement be amended?

 

We may agree with the depositary to amend the deposit agreement and the form of ADR without your consent for any reason. If an amendment adds or increases fees or charges, except for taxes and other governmental charges or expenses of the depositary for registration fees, facsimile costs, delivery charges or similar items, including expenses incurred in connection with foreign exchange control regulations and other charges specifically payable by ADS holders under the deposit agreement, or materially prejudices a substantial existing right of ADS holders, it will not become effective for outstanding ADSs until 30 days after the depositary notifies ADS holders of the amendment. At the time an amendment becomes effective, you are considered, by continuing to hold your ADSs, to agree to the amendment and to be bound by the ADRs and the deposit agreement as amended.

 

How may the deposit agreement be terminated?

 

The depositary will terminate the deposit agreement if we ask it to do so, in which case the depositary will give notice to you at least 90 days prior to termination. The depositary may also terminate the deposit agreement if the depositary has told us that it would like to resign and we have not appointed a new depositary within 90 days. In such case, the depositary must notify you at least 30 days before termination.

 

After termination, the depositary and its agents will do the following under the deposit agreement but nothing else: collect distributions on the deposited securities, sell rights and other property and deliver ordinary shares and other deposited securities upon cancellation of ADSs after payment of any fees, charges, taxes or other governmental charges. Six months or more after termination, the depositary may sell any remaining deposited securities by public or private sale. After that, the depositary will hold the money it received on the sale, as well as any other cash it is holding under the deposit agreement, for the pro rata benefit of the ADS holders that have not surrendered their ADSs. It will not invest the money and has no liability for interest. The depositary’s only obligations will be to account for the money and other cash. After termination, our only obligations will be to indemnify the depositary and to pay fees and expenses of the depositary that we agreed to pay.

 

Books of Depositary

 

The depositary will maintain ADS holder records at its depositary office. You may inspect such records at such office during regular business hours but solely for the purpose of communicating with other holders in the interest of business matters relating to the ADSs and the deposit agreement.

 

The depositary will maintain facilities in New York to record and process the issuance, cancellation, combination, split-up and transfer of ADRs.

 

These facilities may be closed from time to time, to the extent not prohibited by law or if any such action is deemed necessary or advisable by the depositary or us, in good faith, at any time or from time to time because of any requirement of law, any government or governmental body or commission or any securities exchange on which the ADRs or ADSs are listed, or under any provision of the deposit agreement or provisions of, or governing, the deposited securities, or any meeting of our shareholders or for any other reason.

 

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Limitations on Obligations and Liability

 

Limits on our Obligations and the Obligations of the Depositary; Limits on Liability to Holders of ADSs

 

The deposit agreement expressly limits our obligations and the obligations of the depositary. It also limits our liability and the liability of the depositary. We and the depositary:

 

  · are only obligated to take the actions specifically set forth in the deposit agreement without gross negligence or willful misconduct;

 

  · are not liable if either of us is prevented or delayed by law or circumstances beyond our control from performing our obligations under the deposit agreement, including, without limitation, requirements of any present or future law, regulation, governmental or regulatory authority or share exchange of any applicable jurisdiction, any present or future provisions of our memorandum and articles of association, on account of possible civil or criminal penalties or restraint, any provisions of or governing the deposited securities or any act of God, war or other circumstances beyond our control as set forth in the deposit agreement;

 

  · are not liable if either of us exercises, or fails to exercise, discretion permitted under the deposit agreement;

 

  · have no obligation to become involved in a lawsuit or other proceeding related to the ADSs or the deposit agreement on your behalf or on behalf of any other party;

 

  · may rely upon any documents we believe in good faith to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party;

 

  · disclaim any liability for any action/inaction in reliance on the advice or information of legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting ordinary shares for deposit, holders and beneficial owners (or authorized representatives) of ADSs, or any person believed in good faith to be competent to give such advice or information;

 

  · disclaim any liability for inability of any holder to benefit from any distribution, offering, right or other benefit made available to holders of deposited securities but not made available to holders of ADSs; and

 

  · disclaim any liability for any indirect, special, punitive or consequential damages.

 

The depositary and any of its agents also disclaim any liability for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, the manner in which any vote is cast or the effect of any vote or failure to determine that any distribution or action may be lawful or reasonably practicable or for allowing any rights to lapse in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement, the failure or timeliness of any notice from us, the content of any information submitted to it by us for distribution to you or for any inaccuracy of any translation thereof, any investment risk associated with the acquisition of an interest in the deposited securities, the validity or worth of the deposited securities, the credit-worthiness of any third party, or for any tax consequences that may result from ownership of ADSs, ordinary shares or deposited securities.

 

In the deposit agreement, we and the depositary agree to indemnify each other under certain circumstances.

 

Requirements for Depositary Actions

 

Before the depositary will issue, deliver or register a transfer of an ADS, make a distribution on an ADS, or permit withdrawal of ordinary shares, the depositary may require:

 

  · payment of stock transfer or other taxes or other governmental charges and transfer or registration fees charged by third parties for the transfer of any ordinary shares or other deposited securities and payment of the applicable fees, expenses and charges of the depositary;

 

  · satisfactory proof of the identity and genuineness of any signature or other information it deems necessary; and

 

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  · compliance with regulations it may establish, from time to time, consistent with the deposit agreement, including presentation of transfer documents.

 

The depositary may refuse to issue and deliver ADSs or register transfers of ADSs generally when the register of the depositary or our transfer books are closed or at any time if the depositary or we think it is necessary or advisable to do so.

 

Your Right to Receive the Shares Underlying Your ADSs

 

You have the right to cancel your ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares at any time except:

 

  · when temporary delays arise because: (1) the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books; (2) the transfer of ordinary shares is blocked to permit voting at a shareholders’ meeting; or (3) we are paying a dividend on our ordinary shares;

 

  · when you owe money to pay fees, taxes and similar charges; or

 

  · when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of ordinary shares or other deposited securities.

 

This right of withdrawal may not be limited by any other provision of the deposit agreement.

 

Pre-release of ADSs

 

The deposit agreement permits the depositary to deliver ADSs before deposit of the underlying ordinary shares. This is called a pre-release of the ADSs. The depositary may also deliver ordinary shares upon cancellation of pre-released ADSs (even if the ADSs are cancelled before the pre-release transaction has been closed out). A pre-release is closed out as soon as the underlying ordinary shares are delivered to the depositary. The depositary may receive ADSs instead of ordinary shares to close out a pre-release. The depositary may pre-release ADSs only under the following conditions: (1) before or at the time of the pre-release, the person to whom the pre-release is being made represents to the depositary in writing that it or its customer (a) owns the ordinary shares or ADSs to be deposited, (b) assigns all beneficial rights, title and interest in such ordinary shares or ADSs to the depositary for the benefit of the owners, (c) will not take any action with respect to such ordinary shares or ADSs that is inconsistent with the transfer of beneficial ownership, (d) indicates the depositary as owner of such ordinary shares or ADSs in its records, and (e) unconditionally guarantees to deliver such ordinary shares or ADSs to the depositary or the custodian, as the case may be; (2) the pre-release is fully collateralized with cash or other collateral that the depositary considers appropriate; and (3) the depositary must be able to close out the pre-release on not more than five business days’ notice. Each pre-release is subject to further indemnities and credit regulations as the depositary considers appropriate. In addition, the depositary will normally limit the number of ADSs that may be outstanding at any time as a result of pre-release to 30% of the aggregate number of ADSs then outstanding, although the depositary, in its sole discretion, may disregard the limit from time to time, if it thinks it is appropriate to do so, including (1) due to a decrease in the aggregate number of ADSs outstanding that causes existing pre-release transactions to temporarily exceed the limit stated above or (2) where otherwise required by market conditions. The depositary may also set limits with respect to the number of ADSs and Shares involved in pre-release transactions with any one person on a case-by-case basis as it deems appropriate.

 

Direct Registration System

 

In the deposit agreement, all parties to the deposit agreement acknowledge that the DRS and Profile Modification System, or Profile, will apply to uncertificated ADSs upon acceptance thereof to DRS by DTC. DRS is the system administered by DTC pursuant to which the depositary may register the ownership of uncertificated ADSs, which ownership shall be evidenced by periodic statements issued by the depositary to the ADS holders entitled thereto. Profile is a required feature of DRS which allows a DTC participant, claiming to act on behalf of an ADS holder, to direct the depositary to register a transfer of those ADSs to DTC or its nominee and to deliver those ADSs to the DTC account of that DTC participant without receipt by the depositary of prior authorization from the ADS holder to register such transfer.

 

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In connection with and in accordance with the arrangements and procedures relating to DRS/Profile, the parties to the deposit agreement understand that the depositary will not verify, determine or otherwise ascertain that the DTC participant which is claiming to be acting on behalf of an ADS holder in requesting registration of transfer and delivery described in the paragraph above has the actual authority to act on behalf of the ADS holder (notwithstanding any requirements under the Uniform Commercial Code). In the deposit agreement, the parties agree that the depositary’s reliance on, and compliance with, instructions received by the depositary through the DRS/Profile System and in accordance with the deposit agreement, shall not constitute negligence or bad faith on the part of the depositary.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue and offer warrants under the material terms and conditions described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. The accompanying prospectus supplement may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the warrants as described in this prospectus.

 

We may issue warrants to purchase our ordinary shares, including shares represented by ADSs, and/or debt securities. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any securities and may be attached to or separate from those securities. The warrants may be issued under warrant or subscription agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent, all of which will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants we are offering. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.

 

The particular terms of the warrants, the warrant or subscription agreements relating to the warrants and the warrant certificates representing the warrants will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, as applicable:

 

  · the title of such warrants;

 

  · the aggregate number of such warrants;

 

  · the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued and exercised;

 

  · the currency or currencies in which the price of such warrants will be payable;

 

  · the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

 

  · the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

  · if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

  · if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;

 

  · if applicable, the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

  · if applicable, any provisions for cashless exercise of the warrants;

 

  · if applicable; any exercise limitations with respect to the ownership limitations by the holder exercising the warrant;

 

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  · information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

  · any material United Kingdom and United States federal income tax consequences;

 

  · the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any; and

 

  · any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.

 

Holders of warrants will not be entitled, solely by virtue of being holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice as shareholders with respect to any meeting of shareholders for the election of directors or any other matters, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as a holder of the equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any warrants we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable warrant agreement and warrant certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer warrants. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable warrant agreement if we offer warrants, see “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 32 and “Incorporation of Information by Reference” beginning on page 33. We urge you to read any applicable prospectus supplement and the applicable warrant agreement and form of warrant certificate in their entirety.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

 

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our ordinary shares and/or our ADSs. These subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

  the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

  the exercise price payable for each ordinary share and/or ADS upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  the number of subscription rights to be issued to each shareholder;

 

  the number and terms of the ordinary shares and/or ADSs which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

  the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

  any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

  the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

 

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  if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription right agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable subscription right agreement if we offer subscription rights, see “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 32 and “Incorporation by Reference” beginning on page 33. We urge you to read the applicable subscription right agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. The debt securities will be our direct general obligations and may include debentures, notes, bonds or other evidences of indebtedness. The debt securities will be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities. The debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures. Senior debt securities will be issued under a senior debt indenture, and subordinated debt securities will be issued under a subordinated debt indenture. We use the term “indentures” to refer to both the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture. A form of each of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act. We use the term “indenture trustee” to refer to either the senior trustee or the subordinated trustee, as applicable.

 

The following summaries of material provisions of the debt securities and indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities and the description thereof contained in the prospectus supplement.

 

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General

 

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

  the title or designation;

 

  any limit on the principal amount that may be issued;

 

  whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms and the Depositary;

 

  the maturity date;

 

  the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

  whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

  the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

  the place where payments will be payable;

 

  our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

  the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

 

  the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

 

  whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

  whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

  a discussion on any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

 

  the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

 

  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for ordinary shares or other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of ordinary shares or other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

The indentures will not contain any covenant which restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of our assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

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Events of Default Under the Indenture

 

The following may be events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

  if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for a number of days to be stated in the indenture and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

  if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

 

  if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for a number of days to be stated in the indenture after we receive notice from the indenture trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

  if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the indenture trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the indenture trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately; provided that if an event of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occurs, such amounts shall automatically become due and payable without any declaration or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver will cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture occurs and is continuing, the indenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the indenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the indenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the indenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

  the direction given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

  subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the indenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

  the holder has given written notice to the indenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

  the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the indenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

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  the indenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the indenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

We and the indenture trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

  to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

  to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series.

 

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the indenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, we and the indenture trustee may only make the following changes with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

  changing the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities or any installment of principal of or interest on any series of debt securities;

 

  reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities; or

 

  reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

  register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

  replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

  maintain paying agencies;

 

  hold monies for payment in trust;

 

  compensate and indemnify the indenture trustee; and

 

  appoint any successor indenture trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the indenture trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

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Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depositary Trust Company or another Depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series. See “Book-Entry Issuance” for a further description of the terms relating to any book-entry securities.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series, at its option, can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, no service charge will be required for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

  issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

  register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the indenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the indenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

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Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Subordination of Subordinated Notes

 

The subordinated notes will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated notes which we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

Regarding the Indenture Trustee

 

We will name the indenture trustee for debt securities issued under the applicable indenture in the applicable supplement to this prospectus and, unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, the indenture trustee will also act as Transfer Agent and Paying Agent with respect to the debt securities. The indenture trustee may be removed at any time with respect to the debt securities of any series by act of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series delivered to the indenture trustee and to us.

 

Global Securities

 

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depository identified in an applicable subsequent filing and registered in the name of the depository or a nominee for the depository. In such a case, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of the series to be represented by the global security or securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities in definitive certificated form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depository for the global security to a nominee of the depository or by a nominee of the depository to the depository or another nominee of the depository or by the depository or any nominee to a successor depository for that series or a nominee of the successor depository and except in the circumstances described in an applicable subsequent filing.

 

We expect that the following provisions will apply to depository arrangements for any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by a global security. Any additional or different terms of the depository arrangement will be described in an applicable subsequent filing.

 

Upon the issuance of any global security, and the deposit of that global security with or on behalf of the depository for the global security, the depository will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the principal amounts of the debt securities represented by that global security to the accounts of institutions that have accounts with the depository or its nominee. The accounts to be credited will be designated by the underwriters or agents engaging in the distribution of the debt securities or by us, if the debt securities are offered and sold directly by us. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to participating institutions or persons that may hold interest through such participating institutions. Ownership of beneficial interests by participating institutions in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of the beneficial interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depository for the global security or by its nominee. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security by persons that hold through participating institutions will be shown on, and the transfer of the beneficial interests within the participating institutions will be effected only through, records maintained by those participating institutions. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that purchasers of securities take physical delivery of the securities in certificated form. The foregoing limitations and such laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in the global securities.

 

So long as the depository for a global security, or its nominee, is the registered owner of that global security, the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable Indenture. Unless otherwise specified in an applicable subsequent filing and except as specified below, owners of beneficial interests in the global security will not be entitled to have debt securities of the series represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of debt securities of the series in certificated form and will not be considered the holders thereof for any purposes under the Indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in the global security must rely on the procedures of the depository and, if such person is not a participating institution, on the procedures of the participating institution through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the Indenture.

 

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The depository may grant proxies and otherwise authorize participating institutions to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable Indenture. We understand that, under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or any owner of a beneficial interest in the global security desires to give any notice or take any action a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable Indenture, the depository would authorize the participating institutions to give the notice or take the action, and participating institutions would authorize beneficial owners owning through such participating institutions to give the notice or take the action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them.

 

Unless otherwise specified in applicable subsequent filings, payments of principal, premium and interest on debt securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depository or its nominee will be made by us to the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security.

 

We expect that the depository for any debt securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium or interest, will credit participating institutions’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of the global security as shown on the records of the depository. We also expect that payments by participating institutions to owners of beneficial interests in the global security held through those participating institutions will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers registered in street names, and will be the responsibility of those participating institutions. None of us, the trustees or any agent of ours or the trustees will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial interests in a global security, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial interests.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable subsequent filings, a global security of any series will be exchangeable for certificated debt securities of the same series only if:

 

  · the depository for such global securities notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depository or such depository ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and, in either case, a successor depository is not appointed by us within 90 days after we receive the notice or become aware of the ineligibility;

 

  · we in our sole discretion determine that the global securities shall be exchangeable for certificated debt securities; or

 

  · there shall have occurred and be continuing an event of default under the applicable Indenture with respect to the debt securities of that series.

 

Upon any exchange, owners of beneficial interests in the global security or securities will be entitled to physical delivery of individual debt securities in certificated form of like tenor and terms equal in principal amount to their beneficial interests, and to have the debt securities in certificated form registered in the names of the beneficial owners, which names are expected to be provided by the depository’s relevant participating institutions to the applicable trustee.

 

In the event that the Depository Trust Company, or “DTC,” acts as depository for the global securities of any series, the global securities will be issued as fully registered securities registered in the name of Cede & Co., DTC’s partnership nominee.

 

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DTC is a member of the U.S. Federal Reserve System, a limited-purpose trust company under New York State banking law and a registered clearing agency with the Commission. Established in 1973, DTC was created to reduce costs and provide clearing and settlement efficiencies by immobilizing securities and making “book-entry” changes to ownership of the securities. DTC provides securities movements for the net settlements of the National Securities Clearing Corporation, or “NSCC,” and settlement for institutional trades (which typically involve money and securities transfers between custodian banks and broker/dealers), as well as money market instruments.

 

DTC is a subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Company, or “DTCC.” DTCC is a holding company established in 1999 to combine DTC and NSCC. DTCC, through its subsidiaries, provides clearing, settlement and information services for equities, corporate and municipal bonds, government and mortgage backed securities, money market instruments and over the-counter derivatives. In addition, DTCC is a leading processor of mutual funds and insurance transactions, linking funds and carriers with their distribution networks. DTCC’s customer base extends to thousands of companies within the global financial services industry. DTCC serves brokers, dealers, institutional investors, banks, trust companies, mutual fund companies, insurance carriers, hedge funds and other financial intermediaries—either directly or through correspondent relationships.

 

DTCC is industry-owned by its customers who are members of the financial community, such as banks, broker/dealers, mutual funds and other financial institutions. DTCC operates on an at-cost basis, returning excess revenue from transaction fees to its member firms. All services provided by DTC are regulated by the Commission.

 

The 2020 DTCC Board of Directors is composed of 20 directors serving one-year terms. Twelve directors are representatives of clearing agency participants, including broker/dealers, custodian and clearing banks, and investment institutions; two directors are designated by DTCC’s preferred shareholders, which are NYSE Euronext and FINRA; four directors are from non-participants; and the remaining two are the non-executive chairman and the chief executive officer and president of DTCC. All of the Board members except those designated by the preferred shareholders are elected annually.

 

To facilitate subsequent transfers, the debt securities may be registered in the name of DTC’s nominee, Cede & Co. The deposit of the debt securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. will effect no change in beneficial ownership. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the debt securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participating institutions to whose accounts debt securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participating institutions remain responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

Delivery of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participating institutions, by direct participating institutions to indirect participating institutions, and by direct participating institutions and indirect participating institutions to beneficial owners of debt securities are governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect.

 

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. consents or votes with respect to the debt securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC mails a proxy to the issuer as soon as possible after the record date. The proxy assigns Cede & Co.’s consenting or voting rights to those direct participating institution to whose accounts the debt securities are credited on the record date.

 

If applicable, redemption notices shall be sent to Cede & Co. If less than all of the debt securities of a series represented by global securities are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participating institutions in that issue to be redeemed.

 

To the extent that any debt securities provide for repayment or repurchase at the option of the holders thereof, a beneficial owner shall give notice of any option to elect to have its interest in the global security repaid by us, through its participating institution, to the applicable trustee, and shall effect delivery of the interest in a global security by causing the direct participating institution to transfer the direct participating institution’s interest in the global security or securities representing the interest, on DTC’s records, to the applicable trustee. The requirement for physical delivery of debt securities in connection with a demand for repayment or repurchase will be deemed satisfied when the ownership rights in the global security or securities representing the debt securities are transferred by direct participating institutions on DTC’s records.

 

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DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depository for the debt securities at any time. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor securities depository is not appointed, debt security certificates are required to be printed and delivered as described above.

 

We may decide to discontinue use of the system of book-entry transfers through the securities depository. In that event, debt security certificates will be printed and delivered as described above.

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

  · the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

  · any unit agreement under which the units will be issued;

 

  · any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

  · whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form. 

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any units. The preceding description and any description of units in the applicable prospectus supplement does not purport to be complete and is subject to and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the unit agreement and, if applicable, collateral arrangements and depositary arrangements relating to such units. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable unit agreement if we offer units, see “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 32 and “Incorporation by Reference” beginning on page 33. We urge you to read the applicable unit agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

TAXATION

 

The material United Kingdom and U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of any of the securities offered by this prospectus will be set forth in the prospectus supplement offering those securities.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

The securities being offered by this prospectus may be sold:

 

  through agents;

 

  to or through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or agency basis;

 

  through put or call option transactions relating to the securities;

 

  to or through dealers, who may act as agents or principals, including a block trade (which may involve crosses) in which a broker or dealer so engaged will attempt to sell as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

  through privately negotiated transactions;

 

  purchases by a broker or dealer as principal and resale by such broker or dealer for its own account pursuant to this prospectus;

 

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  directly to purchasers, including our affiliates , through a specific bidding or auction process, on a negotiated basis or otherwise; to or through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or best efforts basis;

 

  exchange distributions and/or secondary distributions;

 

  ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker solicits purchasers;

 

  in “at-the-market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise;

 

  transactions not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales or privately negotiated transactions;

 

  transactions in options, swaps or other derivatives that may or may not be listed on an exchange or

 

  through any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law; or

 

  through a combination of any such methods of sale.

 

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At any time a particular offer of the securities covered by this prospectus is made, a revised prospectus or prospectus supplement, if required, will be distributed which will set forth the aggregate amount of securities covered by this prospectus being offered and the terms of the offering, including the name or names of any underwriters, dealers, brokers or agents, any discounts, commissions, concessions and other items constituting compensation from us and any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers. Such prospectus supplement, and, if necessary, a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, will be filed with the SEC to reflect the disclosure of additional information with respect to the distribution of the securities covered by this prospectus. In order to comply with the securities laws of certain states, if applicable, the securities sold under this prospectus may only be sold through registered or licensed broker-dealers. In addition, in some states the securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from registration or qualification requirements is available and is complied with.

 

The distribution of securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including block transactions and transactions on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other organized market where the securities may be traded. The securities may be sold at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, or at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices relating to the prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. The consideration may be cash or another form negotiated by the parties. Agents, underwriters or broker-dealers may be paid compensation for offering and selling the securities. That compensation may be in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions to be received from us or from the purchasers of the securities. Any dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and compensation received by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts. If any such dealers or agents were deemed to be underwriters, they may be subject to statutory liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Agents may from time to time solicit offers to purchase the securities. If required, we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and set forth any compensation payable to the agent. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. Any agent selling the securities covered by this prospectus may be deemed to be an underwriter, as that term is defined in the Securities Act, of the securities.

 

To the extent that we make sales to or through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings, we will do so pursuant to the terms of a distribution agreement between us and the underwriters or agents. If we engage in at-the-market sales pursuant to a distribution agreement, we will sell any of our listed securities to or through one or more underwriters or agents, which may act on an agency basis or on a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, we may sell any of our listed securities on a daily basis in exchange transactions or otherwise as we agree with the underwriters or agents. The distribution agreement will provide that any of our listed securities which are sold will be sold at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our listed securities. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time and will be described in a prospectus supplement. Pursuant to the terms of the distribution agreement, we also may agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of our listed securities. The terms of each such distribution agreement will be set forth in more detail in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus.

 

If underwriters are used in a sale, securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale, or under delayed delivery contracts or other contractual commitments. Securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. If an underwriter or underwriters are used in the sale of securities, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter or underwriters, as well as any other underwriter or underwriters, with respect to a particular underwritten offering of securities, and will set forth the terms of the transactions, including compensation of the underwriters and dealers and the public offering price, if applicable. The prospectus and prospectus supplement will be used by the underwriters to resell the securities.

 

If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities, we or an underwriter will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. To the extent required, we will set forth in the prospectus supplement the name of the dealer and the terms of the transactions.

 

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We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities and may make sales of securities directly to institutional investors or others. These persons may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any resale of the securities. To the extent required, the prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any such sales, including the terms of any bidding or auction process, if used.

 

Agents, underwriters and dealers may be entitled under agreements which may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against specified liabilities, including liabilities incurred under the Securities Act, or to contribution by us to payments they may be required to make in respect of such liabilities. If required, the prospectus supplement will describe the terms and conditions of the indemnification or contribution. Some of the agents, underwriters or dealers, or their affiliates may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or our subsidiaries.

 

Any person participating in the distribution of securities registered under the registration statement that includes this prospectus will be subject to applicable provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the applicable SEC rules and regulations, including, among others, Regulation M, which may limit the timing of purchases and sales of any of our securities by that person. Furthermore, Regulation M may restrict the ability of any person engaged in the distribution of our securities to engage in market-making activities with respect to our securities. These restrictions may affect the marketability of our securities and the ability of any person or entity to engage in market-making activities with respect to our securities.

 

Certain persons participating in an offering may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions, penalty bids and other transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the offered securities. These activities may maintain the price of the offered securities at levels above those that might otherwise prevail in the open market, including by entering stabilizing bids, effecting syndicate covering transactions or imposing penalty bids, each of which is described below:

 

  a stabilizing bid means the placing of any bid, or the effecting of any purchase, for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of a security.

 

  a syndicate covering transaction means the placing of any bid on behalf of the underwriting syndicate or the effecting of any purchase to reduce a short position created in connection with the offering.

 

  a penalty bid means an arrangement that permits the managing underwriter to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member in connection with the offering when offered securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in syndicate covering transactions.

 

These transactions may be effected on an exchange or automated quotation system, if the securities are listed on that exchange or admitted for trading on that automated quotation system, or in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

 

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase offered securities from us at the public offering price set forth in such prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. Such contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement and the prospectus supplement will set forth the commission payable for solicitation of such contracts.

 

In addition, ordinary shares, ADSs or warrants may be issued upon conversion of or in exchange for debt securities or other securities.

 

Any underwriters to whom offered securities are sold for public offering and sale may make a market in such offered securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The offered securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. No assurance can be given that there will be a market for the offered securities.

 

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Any securities that qualify for sale pursuant to Rule 144 or Regulation S under the Securities Act, may be sold under Rule 144 or Regulation S rather than pursuant to this prospectus.

 

In connection with offerings made through underwriters or agents, we may enter into agreements with such underwriters or agents pursuant to which we receive our outstanding securities in consideration for the securities being offered to the public for cash. In connection with these arrangements, the underwriters or agents may also sell securities covered by this prospectus to hedge their positions in these outstanding securities, including in short sale transactions. If so, the underwriters or agents may use the securities received from us under these arrangements to close out any related open borrowings of securities.

 

We may enter into derivative transactions with third parties or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of shares, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of shares. The third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) in such sale transactions will be underwriters and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment).

 

We may loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities using this prospectus. Such financial institution or third party may transfer its short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a simultaneous offering of other securities offered by this prospectus or in connection with a simultaneous offering of other securities offered by this prospectus.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019 incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm (the report on the financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph regarding the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern) incorporated by reference herein, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

McDermott Will & Emery LLP has passed upon certain legal matters regarding the securities offered hereby. If the securities are distributed in an underwritten offering, certain legal matters will be passed upon for the underwriters by counsel identified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form F-3, including amendments and relevant exhibits and schedules, under the Securities Act covering the ordinary shares represented by ADSs to be sold in this offering. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, summarizes material provisions of contracts and other documents that we refer to in the prospectus. Since this prospectus does not contain all of the information contained in the registration statement, you should read the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules for further information with respect to us and our ordinary shares and the ADSs. Our SEC filings, including the registration statement, are also available to you on the SEC's Web site at http://www.sec.gov.

 

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We are subject to the information reporting requirements of the Exchange Act that are applicable to foreign private issuers, and under those requirements we file reports with the SEC. Those other reports or other information may be inspected without charge at the locations described above. As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as United States companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, we file with the SEC, within four months after the end of each fiscal year, or such applicable time as required by the SEC, an annual report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm, and submit to the SEC, on Form 6-K, unaudited quarterly financial information for the first three quarters of each fiscal year within 60 days after the end of each such quarter, or such applicable time as required by the SEC.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

We file annual and special reports and other information with the SEC (File Number 001-36288). These filings contain important information that does not appear in this prospectus. The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to other documents which we have filed or will file with the SEC. We are incorporating by reference in this prospectus the documents listed below and all amendments or supplements we may file to such documents, as well as any future filings we may make with the SEC on Form 20-F under the Exchange Act before the time that all of the securities offered by this prospectus have been sold or de-registered:

 

  · our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2020;

 

  · Our Form 6-Ks filed with the SEC on March 31, 2020, May 1, 2020, May 21, 2020, May 29, 2020, June 1, 2020, July 1, 2020 (two 6-Ks filed), August 31, 2020, September 1, 2020, October 1, 2020, October 6, 2020, November 16, 2020, December 3, 2020, December 9, 2020 and December 11, 2020 (two 6-Ks filed) (to the extent expressly incorporated by reference into our effective registration statements filed by us under the Securities Act);

 

  · the description of the ADSs and ordinary shares contained in our Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 30, 2014 including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; 

 

The information relating to us contained in this prospectus does not purport to be comprehensive and should be read together with the information contained in the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

As you read the above documents, you may find inconsistencies in information from one document to another. If you find inconsistencies between the documents and this prospectus, you should rely on the statements made in the most recent document. All information appearing in this prospectus is qualified in its entirety by the information and financial statements, including the notes thereto, contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, a copy of these filings, at No cost, upon written or oral request to us at the following address:

 

Akari Therapeutics, Plc

75/76 Wimpole Street

London W1G 9RT

+44 20 8004 0270

Attention: Clive Richardson

 

You also may access the incorporated reports and other documents referenced above on our website at www.akaritx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or a prospectus supplement. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus, or such earlier date, that is indicated in this prospectus. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

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INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS

 

We are incorporated under the laws of England and Wales. Several of our directors and officers reside outside the United States, and a portion of our assets and all or a substantial portion of the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for you to serve legal process on us or certain of our directors and executive officers or have any of them appear in a U.S. court.

 

It may be difficult for U.S. investors to bring and/or effectively enforce suits against our company in England. Although English courts do recognize U.S. judgments unless there is an overriding jurisdictional or public policy reason not to do so, if a judgment is obtained in the U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws against us, difficulties may arise in enforcing the judgment against us in the English courts. The enforceability of any U.S. judgment in the United Kingdom will depend on the particular facts of the case as well as the laws and treaties in effect at the time. The United States and the United Kingdom do not currently have a treaty providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. It may similarly be difficult for U.S. investors to bring an original action in the English courts to enforce liabilities based on U.S. federal securities laws.

 

EXPENSES

 

We are paying all of the expenses of the registration of our securities under the Securities Act, including, to the extent applicable, registration and filing fees, printing and duplication expenses, administrative expenses, accounting fees and the legal fees of our counsel. The following is a statement of estimated expenses at the present time in connection with the distribution of the securities registered hereby. All amounts shown are estimates except the SEC registration fee. The estimates do not include expenses related to offerings of particular securities. Each prospectus supplement describing an offering of securities will reflect the estimated expenses related to the offering of securities under that prospectus supplement.

 

SEC registration fees   $ 490.94  
Legal fees and expenses   $ *  
Accountants fees and expenses   $ *  
Printing Fees   $ *  
Miscellaneous   $ *  
Total   $ *  

 

 

* These fees and expenses depend on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

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$100,000,000

 

Ordinary Shares

American Depositary Shares representing Ordinary Shares

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities

Units

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

    , 2021

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 8.  Indemnification of Directors, Officers and Employees

 

The Registrant’s articles of association provide that, subject to the Companies Act, every director or other officer (excluding an auditor) of the Registrant may be indemnified out of the assets of the Registrant against all costs, charges, expenses, losses or liabilities incurred by him in performing his duties or the exercise of his powers or otherwise in relation to or in connection with his duties, powers or office.

 

The Registrant also maintains directors and officers insurance to insure such persons against certain liabilities.

 

Item 9. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

The following exhibits are attached hereto:

 

 

 

Exhibit 
No.
  Exhibit Description
1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement
     
3.1   Articles of Association of Akari Therapeutics, Plc
     
4.1   Form of Deposit Agreement among the Registrant, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as Depositary, and all Owners and Holders from time to time of American Depositary Shares issued thereunder (incorporated by reference to the exhibit previously filed with the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form F-6 (No. 333-185197) filed on November 30, 2012)
     
4.2   Amendment to Deposit Agreement among the Registrant, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as Depositary, and all Owners and Holders from time to time of American Depositary Shares issued thereunder (incorporated by reference to the registrant’s Post-Effective Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement on Form F-6 (No. 333-185197) filed on December 24, 2013)
     
4.3   Form of Amendment No. 2 to Deposit Agreement (incorporated by reference to the exhibit previously filed with the Registrant’s Post-Effective Amendment on Registration Statement Form F-6 (File No. 333-185197) filed on September 9, 2015).
     
4.4   Form of American Depositary Receipt; the Form is Exhibit A of the Form of Amendment to the Deposit Agreement (incorporated by reference to the exhibit previously filed with the Registrant’s Post-Effective Amendment on Registration Statement Form F-6 (File No. 333-185197) filed on September 9, 2015).
     
4.5*   Form of Warrant Agreement (including Warrant Certificate)
     
4.6*   Form of Subscription Right Agreement (including form of Right Certificate)
     
4.7   Form of Indenture for Senior Indebtedness
     
4.8   Form of Indenture for Subordinated Indebtedness
     
4.9*   Form of Unit Agreement (including form of Unit Certificate)
     
4.10*  

Form of Debt Security

     
5.1   Opinion of McDermott Will & Emery UK LLP, counsel to Registrant
     
5.2   Opinion of McDermott Will & Emery LLP, counsel to Registrant
     
23.1   Consent of BDO USA, LLP
     
23.3   Consent of McDermott Will & Emery UK LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
     
23.4   Consent of McDermott Will & Emery LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2)
     
24.1   Power of Attorney (included in signature page)
     
25.1**   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1 with respect to the Indentures for Senior Debt Securities and Subordinated Debt Securities

 

  + To be filed by amendment.

 

  * To be filed, if applicable, by amendment, or as an exhibit to a report on Form 6-K and incorporated herein by reference.

 

  ** To be filed separately under the electronic form type 305B2, if applicable.

 

 

 

The agreements included as exhibits to this registration statement contain representations and warranties by each of the parties to the applicable agreement. These representations and warranties were made solely for the benefit of the other parties to the applicable agreement and (i) were not intended to be treated as categorical statements of fact, but rather as a way of allocating the risk to one of the parties if those statements prove to be inaccurate; (ii) may have been qualified in such agreement by disclosures that were made to the other party in connection with the negotiation of the applicable agreement; (iii) may apply contract standards of “materiality” that are different from “materiality” under the applicable securities laws; and (iv) were made only as of the date of the applicable agreement or such other date or dates as may be specified in the agreement.

 

The Registrant acknowledges that, notwithstanding the inclusion of the foregoing cautionary statements, the registrant is responsible for considering whether additional specific disclosures of material information regarding material contractual provisions are required to make the statements in this registration statement not misleading.

 

Item 10.  Undertakings

 

  (a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

i.            To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

ii.            To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post- effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

 

iii.            To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and a(l)(iii) do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 or Form F-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2) That for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and this offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-1

 

 

  (3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4) To file a post-effective amendment to the registration statement to include any financial statements required by Item 8.A. of Form 20-F at the start of any delayed offering or throughout a continuous offering. Financial statements and information otherwise required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Act need not be furnished, provided that the registrant includes in the prospectus, by means of a post-effective amendment, financial statements required pursuant to this paragraph (a)(4) and other information necessary to ensure that all other information in the prospectus is at least as current as the date of those financial statements. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to registration statements on Form F-3, a post-effective amendment need not be filed to include financial statements and information required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Act or Rule 3-19 of this chapter if such financial statements and information are contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Form F-3. 

 

  (5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  i. If the Registrant is relying on Rule 430B:

 

  (A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  ii. If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

 

II-2

 

 

  (6) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

 

The undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  i. Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  ii. Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  iii. The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

 

  iv. Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant's annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan's annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transactions by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.

 

  (d) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to deliver or cause to be delivered with the prospectus, to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest annual report to security holders that is incorporated by reference in the prospectus and furnished pursuant to and meeting the requirements of Rule 14a-3 or Rule 14c-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and, where interim financial information required to be presented by Article 3 of Regulation S-X are not set forth in the prospectus, to deliver, or cause to be delivered to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest quarterly report that is specifically incorporated by reference in the prospectus to provide such interim financial information.

 

  (e) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the provisions described in Item 6 hereof, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

II-3

 

 

  (f) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (g) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

  i. For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this Registration Statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of this Registration Statement as of the time it was declared effective.

 

  ii. For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-4

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in London, England on this 23rd day of December, 2020.

 

 

  AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC
     
  By: /s/ Clive Richardson
    Name: Clive Richardson
    Title: Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTED, that each director and officer of AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC whose signature appears below hereby appoints Messrs. Ray Prudo and Clive Richardson and each of them, the individual’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power to act separately and full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person and in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign on such person’s behalf, individually and in each capacity stated below, any and all amendments, including post-effective -amendments to this Registration Statement, and to sign any and all additional registration statements relating to the same offering of securities of the Registration Statement that are filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act of 1933, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact, or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on December 23, 2020.

 

Name   Title   Date
         
/s/ Clive Richardson   Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer and Director    
Clive Richardson   (principal executive officer)   December 23, 2020
         
/s/ Dr. Torsten Hombeck   Chief Financial Officer    
Dr. Torsten Hombeck   (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)   December 23, 2020
         
/s/ Dr. Ray Prudo   Executive Chairman    
Dr. Ray Prudo       December 23, 2020
         
/s/ Dr. James Hill   Director    
Dr. James Hill     December 23, 2020
         
/s/ Dr. Stuart Ungar   Director    
Dr. Stuart Ungar       December 23, 2020
         
/s/ David Byrne   Director    
David Byrne       December 23, 2020
         
/s/ Donald Williams   Director    
Donald Williams       December 23, 2020
         
/s/ Michael Grissinger   Director    
Michael Grissinger       December 23, 2020
         
/s/ Dr. Peter Feldschreiber   Director    
Dr. Peter Feldschreiber       December 23, 2020

 

II-5

 

 

AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE

 

Pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the undersigned, the duly authorized representative in the United States of Akari Therapeutics Plc has signed this registration statement in the city of Monsey, the State of New York, on December 23, 2020

 

  Puglisi & Associates
   
   
  By: /s/ Donald J. Puglisi
    Name: Donald J. Puglisi
    Title: Managing Director

 

II-6

 

Exhibit 3.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

 

Company No. 5252842

 


ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

The Companies Act 2006

 


Public Company Limited by Shares

 

 

 

 

 

(proposed for adoption at the general meeting
of the company on 8 December 2020)

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

1.   Preliminary 1
2.   Liability of members 3
3.   Share capital and variation of rights 3
4.   Certificates and shares 5
5.   Uncertificated Shares 6
6.   Calls on shares 7
7.   Transfer of shares 9
8.   Forfeiture of shares 10
9.   Transmission of shares 11
10.   Disclosure of interests in shares 12
11.   Increase of capital 14
12.   Alteration of capital 14
13.   General meetings 15
14.   Notice of general meetings 16
15.   Proceedings at general meetings 16
16.   Votes of members 16
17.   Corporations acting by representatives 16
18.   Directors 16
19.   Alternate Directors 16
20.   Powers and duties of Directors 16
21.   Borrowing powers 16
22.   Proceedings of committees 16
23.   Appointment and retirement of Directors 16
24.   Disqualification and removal of Directors 16
25.   Executive and other directors 16
26.   Directors’ interests 16
27.   Conflicts of interest requiring Board authorisation 16
28.   Proceedings of Directors 16
29.   Secretary 16
30.   Minutes 16

 

- ii -

 

 

31.   Seal and authentication of documents 16
32.   Dividends 16
33.   Reserves 16
34.   Capitalisation of profits 16
35.   Accounts 16
36.   Record dates 16
37.   Audit 16
38.   Notices 16
39.   Untraced shareholders 16
40.   Destruction of documents 16
41.   Winding up 16
42.   Indemnity 16
43.   Indemnity against claims in respect of shares 16
44.   Derivative actions 16
45.   Deferred shares 16

 

 

- iii - 

 

 

 

1.Preliminary

 

1.1In these articles of association, the following words and expressions have the following meanings if not inconsistent with the subject or context:

 

Auditors the auditors of the company from time to time;
Board the board of directors present at a duly convened and quorate meeting or Directors at a duly authorised committee of Directors as the context requires;
Business Day a day between Monday and Friday (excluding public holidays), inclusive, on which clearing banks are open in the City of London and New York;
CA 2006 Companies Act 2006 as amended or re-enacted from time to time;
Default Shares has the meaning as ascribed to it regulation 10.1;
Director a director from time to time of the company;
Disenfranchisement Notice a notice served by the company on the holder of Default Shares in accordance with regulation 10.1;
Dividend a dividend or bonus;
elected ordinary shares has the meaning as ascribed to it in regulation 32.12.6;
electronic facility a website, conference-call system or other device, system, procedure, method or facility providing an electronic means of attendance at and/or participation in a general meeting;
excepted transfer has the meaning as ascribed to it in regulation 10.7.3;
executed any mode of execution including signed, sealed or authenticated in some other way;
holder in relation to shares in the company, a member whose name is entered in the register of members as the holder of those shares;
Listing Rules the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market or any other market or exchange to which shares of the company are admitted to trading with the company’s consent and any relevant listing authority, as applicable;

 

 

 

 

member any holder for the time being of shares in the capital of the company of whatever class;
month calendar month;
Office the registered office for the time being and from time to time of the company;
Operator Euroclear UK & Ireland Limited or such other person as may for the time being be approved by HM Treasury as Operator under the Uncertificated Securities Regulations;
Ordinary Shares the ordinary shares of USD0.0001 each in the capital of the company;
paid up includes credited as paid up;
principal place the place specified as such in the notice of any general meeting of the company or, if only one place is given in the notice, that place;
Relevant Director has the meaning ascribed to it in regulation 27.1;
relevant value has the meaning ascribed to it in regulation 32.12.2;
seal the common seal of the company;
Secretary the secretary of the company and, subject to the provisions of the Statutes, includes an assistant or deputy secretary and any person appointed by the Directors to perform any of the duties of the secretary;
Section 793 Notice a notice served by the company under section 793, CA 2006;
Statutes CA 2006, and all other statutes and secondary legislation for the time being in force relating to companies to the extent that they apply to the company; and
Uncertificated Securities Regulations the Uncertificated Securities Regulations 2001 (SI 2001/3755).

 

 - 2 - 

 

 

1.2Where the context so requires, words denoting the singular include the plural and vice versa, words denoting the masculine gender include the feminine, and persons include corporations, partnerships, other incorporated bodies and all other legal entities, with the necessary adaptation.

 

1.3Words and expressions defined in CA 2006 have the same meanings in these articles, unless the context otherwise requires.

 

1.4Where these articles refer to a relevant system in relation to any share, the reference is to the system in which that share is a participating security at the relevant time.

 

1.5Any reference to a provision of any statute, statutory instrument, note, order or regulation is construed as a reference to such provision as amended, modified, consolidated or re-enacted from time to time. References to applicable law shall include references to Listing Rules and the securities laws of the United States and subdivisions thereof as far as they apply to the company under their provisions or these articles.

 

1.6References in these articles to a share being in uncertificated form are references to that share being an uncertificated unit of a security.

 

1.7The headings are inserted for convenience and do not affect the construction of these articles.

 

1.8Subject to the Statutes and other applicable laws and Listing Rules, unless the context requires otherwise:

 

1.8.1a place (for the holding of a meeting, the conduct of a poll, or any other purpose) may be a physical place or an electronic facility;

 

1.8.2any reference to a meeting refers to a meeting convened and held in any manner permitted by these articles, including a general meeting of the company at which some or all persons participate in more than one physical places; and

 

1.8.3the words participate, attend and present, their cognates and similar words shall be construed in accordance with the above provisions and regulation 13.4.

 

2.Liability of members

 

The liability of members of the company is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares held by them.

 

 - 3 - 

 

 

3.Share capital and variation of rights

 

3.1Subject to the provisions of the Statutes and to the authority of the company in general meeting, the Board has unconditional authority to allot, grant options over, issue warrants to subscribe, offer or otherwise deal with or dispose of any shares of the company to such persons, at such times and generally on such terms and conditions as they may determine, including issuing shares with such preferred or deferred rights as resolved by the company in general meeting.

 

3.2Subject to the provisions of the Statutes and to the authority of the company in general meeting, the company has power to purchase its own shares, including any redeemable shares.

 

3.3When any shares are to be issued, the Board may vary the amount of calls to be paid and the time of payment of such calls as between the allottees of such shares.

 

3.4If by the conditions of allotment of any share the whole or part of its issue price is payable by instalments, every such instalment will, when due, be paid to the company by the person who for the time being is the registered holder of the share.

 

3.5The company may issue shares which are to be redeemed or are liable to be redeemed at the option of the company or the shareholders.

 

3.6In addition to all other powers of paying commissions, the company may exercise the powers conferred by the Statutes of paying commissions to persons subscribing or procuring subscriptions for shares of the company, or agreeing so to do, whether absolutely or conditionally. Subject to the provisions of the Statutes and to any Listing Rules, any such commissions may be satisfied by the payment of cash or, by the allotment of fully or partly paid shares of the company or by any such combination. The company may also, on any issue of shares, pay such brokerage as may be lawful.

 

3.7Except as required by law, no person will be recognised by the company as holding any share upon any trust, and except only as otherwise provided by these articles or as required by law or under an order of a court of competent jurisdiction, the company will not be bound by or recognise any equitable, contingent, future or partial interest in any share, or any interest in any fraction or part of a share, or any other right in respect of any share, except an absolute right to the entirety of it in the registered holder.

 

3.8Subject to the Statutes and to regulation 3.1, if at any time the capital of the company is divided into different classes of shares, all or any of the rights or privileges attached to any class may be varied or abrogated either in such manner, if any, as may be provided by such rights, or in the absence of any such provision, with the consent in writing of the holders of at least three fourths of the nominal value of the issued shares of that class (excluding any shares of that class held as treasury shares), or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of the shares of that class, but not otherwise.

 

 - 4 - 

 

 

3.9All the provisions of these articles relating to general meetings of the company, or to the proceedings at them, and the provisions of sections 284, 307 and 310, CA 2006 apply to every such separate meeting referred to in regulation 3.8, with any necessary modifications. The quorum at an adjourned meeting will be one person holding shares of the class in question or his proxy. Any holder of shares of the class in question present in person or by proxy may demand a poll.

 

3.10The creation or issue of shares ranking equally with or subsequent to the shares of any class will not, unless otherwise expressly provided by these articles or the rights attached to such shares as a class, be deemed to be a variation of the rights of such shares.

 

4.Certificates and shares

 

4.1Every person whose name is entered as a member in the Register, other than a person in respect of whom the company is not required by law to complete and have ready for delivery a certificate (by virtue of the conditions of issue of such shares or section 778, CA 2006 or otherwise) is entitled, without payment, to one certificate for all the shares of each class for the time being held by him or, upon payment of such reasonable out-of-pocket expenses as the Board may from time to time determine for every certificate after the first, to several certificates, each for one or more of his shares.

 

4.2Every certificate will:

 

4.2.1be issued within two months after allotment or the lodgement with the company of the transfer of the shares, not being a transfer which the company is for any reason entitled to refuse to register and does not register, unless the conditions of issue of such shares otherwise provide and except as exempted by virtue of section 778, CA 2006;

 

4.2.2be issued under the official seal kept by the company by virtue of section 50, CA 2006 or otherwise in accordance with the Statutes and as the Board may, by resolution decide, either generally or in relation to any specific case or cases; and

 

4.2.3specify the number and class and distinguishing numbers, if any, of the shares to which it relates, and the amount paid up on them.

 

4.3The company is not bound to register more than four persons as the joint holders of any share or shares, except in the case of executors or trustees of a deceased member. In the case of a share held jointly by several persons, the company is not bound to issue more than one certificate for it. Delivery of a certificate for a share to one of several joint holders will be sufficient delivery to all.

 

 - 5 - 

 

 

4.4Where a member transfers part of his holding of shares, he will be entitled to a certificate for the balance of his holding without charge.

 

4.5Share certificates and certificates for debentures and, subject to the provisions of any instrument constituting or securing them, certificates issued under the official seal kept by the company by virtue of section 50, CA 2006, need not be signed or countersigned, or the signatures may be affixed to them by such mechanical means as may be determined by the Board.

 

4.6If a share certificate is lost, destroyed, defaced or worn out, it will be renewed and, in case of loss or destruction, on such terms, if any, as to evidence an indemnity as the Board thinks fit, and, in case of defacement or wearing out, on delivery to the company of the old certificate.

 

4.7The company will not make any charge for any certificate issued under regulation 4.6 but will be entitled to charge for any exceptional out-of-pocket expenses it incurred relating to the issue of any new certificate.

 

5.Uncertificated Shares

 

5.1Under and subject to the Uncertificated Securities Regulations, the Board may permit title to shares of any class to be evidenced otherwise than by certificate and title to shares of such a class to be transferred by means of a relevant system and may make arrangements for a class of shares (if all shares of that class are in all respects identical) to become a participating class. Title to shares of a particular class may only be evidenced otherwise than by a certificate where that class of shares is at the relevant time a participating class. The Board may also, subject to compliance with the Uncertificated Securities Regulations, determine at any time that title to any class of shares may from a date specified by the Board no longer be evidenced otherwise than by a certificate or that title to such a class shall cease to be transferred by means of any particular relevant system.

 

5.2In relation to a class of shares which is a participating class and for so long as it remains a participating class, no provision of these articles shall apply or have effect to the extent that it is inconsistent in any respect with:

 

5.2.1the holding of shares of that class in uncertificated form;

 

5.2.2the transfer of title to shares of that class by means of a relevant system; or

 

5.2.3any provision of the Uncertificated Securities Regulations; and, without prejudice to the generality of this article, no provision of these articles shall apply or have effect to the extent that it is in any respect inconsistent with the maintenance, keeping or entering up by the Operator so long as that is permitted or required by the Uncertificated Securities Regulations, of an Operator register of securities in respect of that class of shares in uncertificated form.

 

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5.3Shares of a class which is at the relevant time a participating class may be changed from uncertificated to certificated form, and from certificated to uncertificated form, in accordance with and subject as provided in the Uncertificated Securities Regulations.

 

5.4If, under these articles or the Statutes, the company is entitled to sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of, forfeit, re-allot, accept the surrender of or otherwise enforce a lien over an uncertificated share, then, subject to these articles and the Statute, such entitlement shall include the right of the Board to:

 

5.4.1require the holder of the uncertificated share by notice in writing to change that share from uncertificated to certificated form within such period as may be specified in the notice and keep it as a certificated share for as long as the Board requires;

 

5.4.2appoint any person to take such other steps, by instruction given by means of a relevant system or otherwise, in the name of the holder of such share as may be required to effect the transfer of such share and such steps shall be as effective as if they had been taken by the registered holder of that share; and

 

5.4.3take such other action that the Board considers appropriate to achieve the sale, transfer, disposal, forfeiture, re-allotment or surrender of that share or otherwise to enforce a lien in respect of that share.

 

5.5Unless the Board determines otherwise, shares which a member holds in uncertificated form shall be treated as separate holdings from any shares which that member holds in certificated form but a class of shares shall not be treated as two classes simply because some shares of that class are held in certificated form and others in uncertificated form.

 

5.6Unless the Board determines otherwise or the Uncertificated Securities Regulations require otherwise, any shares issued or created out of or in respect of any uncertificated shares shall be uncertificated shares and any shares issued or created out of or in respect of any certificated shares shall be certificated shares.

 

5.7The company shall be entitled to assume that the entries on any record of securities maintained by it in accordance with the Uncertificated Securities Regulations and regularly reconciled with the relevant Operator register of securities are a complete and accurate reproduction of the particulars entered in the Operator register of securities and shall accordingly not be liable in respect of any act or thing done or omitted to be done by or on behalf of the company in reliance on such assumption. Any provision of these articles which requires or envisages that action will be taken in reliance on information contained in the register of members shall be construed to permit that action to be taken in reliance on information contained in any relevant record of securities (as so maintained and reconciled).

 

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6.Calls on shares

 

6.1The Board may, subject to the provisions of these articles and to any conditions of allotment, from time to time make calls upon the members in respect of any money unpaid on their shares, whether on account of the nominal value of the shares or by way of premium. Each member will, subject to being given at least 14 days’ notice specifying the time or times and place of payment, pay to the company at the time or times and place so specified the amount called on his shares.

 

6.2A call may be payable by instalments and may be postponed or wholly revoked or in part revoked, as the Board may determine.

 

6.3A call will be deemed to have been made at the time when the resolution of the Board authorising the call was passed.

 

6.4The joint holders of a share are jointly and severally liable to pay all calls in respect of it and any one of such persons may give effective receipts for any return of capital payable in respect of such shares.

 

6.5If by the terms of any admission document, prospectus, listing particulars or any other document relating to an issue of shares in the company or by the conditions of allotment, any amount is payable in respect of any shares by instalments, every such instalment will be payable as if it were a call duly made by the Board of which due notice had been given.

 

6.6If a sum called in respect of a share is not paid before or on the day appointed for its payment, the person from whom the sum is due must pay interest on the sum at such rate as may be fixed by the terms of allotment of the share or, if no rate is fixed, at the appropriate rate, as defined by section 592, CA 2006, from the day appointed for its payment to the time of actual payment. The Board is at liberty to waive payment of such interest wholly or in part.

 

6.7Any sum which by or pursuant to the terms of issue of a share becomes payable upon allotment or at any fixed date, whether on account of the amount of the share or by way of premium, will for all the purposes of these articles be deemed to be a call duly made and payable on the date on which, by or pursuant to the terms of issue, it becomes payable. In case of non-payment, all the relevant provisions of these articles as to payment of interest, forfeiture or otherwise apply as if such sum had become payable by virtue of a call duly made and notified.

 

6.8The Board may make arrangements on the issue of shares for a difference between the holders in the amount of calls to be paid and in the times of payment.

 

6.9The Board may receive from any member willing to advance it all or any part of the money unpaid upon the shares held by him, beyond the sums actually called up on them, as a payment in advance of calls, and such payment in advance of calls will extinguish, so far as they extend, the liability upon the shares in respect of which it is advanced. The company may pay interest upon the money so received, or so much of it as from time to time exceeds the amount of the calls then made upon the shares in respect of which it has been received, at such rate as the member paying such sum and the Board agree. Any such payment in advance will not entitle the holder of the shares in question to participate in any dividend in respect of the amount advanced.

 

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7.Transfer of shares

 

7.1Any member may (subject to the terms of issue of the relevant shares) transfer any of his certificated shares by instrument of transfer in any usual form or in such other form as the Board approves. The instrument must be executed by or on behalf of the transferor and (except in the case of a share which is fully paid up) by or on behalf of the transferee but need not be under seal. The transferor is deemed to remain the holder of the share until the name of the transferee is entered in the Register in respect of it. Transfers of shares in uncertificated form will be effected by means of the relevant system in accordance with the Statutes, these articles and any resolution of the Board taken in compliance with the relevant Listing Rules applicable to the company’s shares.

 

7.2Subject to regulation 4, the Board may refuse to register a transfer or a certified share unless the instrument of transfer:

 

7.2.1is in respect of only one class of shares;

 

7.2.2is in favour of not more than four joint transferees;

 

7.2.3is duly stamped (if required);

 

7.2.4is in compliance with all applicable rules and regulations; and

 

7.2.5is lodged at the Office or such other place as the Board may decide accompanied by the certificate for the shares to which it relates (except in the case of a transfer by a person to whom no certificate was issued) and such other evidence (if any) as the Board may reasonably require to prove the title of the transferor and the due execution by him of the transfer or, if the transfer is executed by some other person on his behalf, the authority of that person to do so.

 

7.3The Board may in its absolute discretion and without giving any reasons, refuse to register any transfer of a certificated share which is not fully paid, but this discretion may not be exercised in such a way as to prevent dealings in the shares from taking place on an open and proper basis.

 

7.4The Board may, in circumstances permitted by the Listing Rules, disapprove the transfer of a certificated share if the exercise of such power does not disturb the market in the shares.

 

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7.5The Board may refuse to register the transfer of an uncertificated share in any circumstances permitted by law if the exercise of such power does not disturb the market in the shares. Where the Listing Rules do not authorise the Board to refuse to register a transfer, than the Board shall have no such authority.

 

7.6If the Board refuses to register a transfer of any share it must send to the transferee a notice of such refusal within whichever of the following periods is the shorter:

 

7.6.1the time required by the Listing Rules; and

 

7.6.2two months after the date on which the transfer was lodged with the company.

 

7.7No fee will be charged for the registration of a transfer or other document relating to or affecting the title to any share or for making any entry in the Register affecting the title to any share.

 

7.8Subject to regulation 40, all instruments of transfer which are registered may be retained by the company but any instrument of transfer which the Board refuses to register will (except in the case of suspected fraud) be returned to the person depositing it when notice of the refusal is given.

 

8.Forfeiture of shares

 

8.1If a member fails to pay any call or instalment of a call before or on the date appointed for its payment the Board may, at any time after that date, serve a notice on him requiring payment of so much of the call or instalment as is unpaid, together with any interest which may have accrued on it and all expenses incurred by the company by reason of such non-payment.

 

8.2The notice will name a further date, not earlier than 14 days from the date of its service, on or before which, and the place where, the payment required by the notice is to be made, and will state that, in the event of non-payment on or before the date, and at the place appointed, the shares on which the call was made will be liable to be forfeited.

 

8.3If the requirements of any such notice are not complied with, any share in respect of which it has been given may at any time before payment of all calls, interest and expenses due in respect of it has been made, be forfeited by a resolution of the Board. Such forfeiture will include all dividends which have been declared on the forfeited shares and not actually paid before the forfeiture.

 

8.4When any share has been forfeited, notice of the forfeiture will be served upon the person who was before forfeiture the holder of it, but no forfeiture will be in any manner invalidated by any omission to give such notice. Subject to the provisions of the Statutes, any share so forfeited will become the property of the company, no voting rights may be exercised in respect of it and the Board may within three years of such forfeiture sell, re-allot, or otherwise dispose of it in such manner as they think fit, either to the person who was before the forfeiture its holder, or to any other person, and either with or without any past or accruing dividends, and in the case of re-allotment, with or without any money paid on it by the former holder being credited as paid up on it. Any share not so disposed of within a period of three years from the date of its forfeiture will be cancelled in accordance with the provisions of the Statutes.

 

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8.5The Board may at any time, before any share so forfeited has been cancelled or sold, re-allotted or otherwise disposed of, annul the forfeiture upon such conditions as they think fit.

 

8.6A person whose shares have been forfeited ceases to be a member in respect of the forfeited shares and must, if the shares are certificated shares, surrender to the company the certificate for them. That person remains liable to pay to the company all money which at the date of forfeiture was payable by him to the company in respect of the shares and interest on them in accordance with regulation 6.6, and the Board may enforce payment without any allowance for the value of the shares at the time of forfeiture.

 

8.7A statutory declaration by a Director or the Secretary that a share has been duly forfeited on a date stated in the declaration, is conclusive evidence of the facts stated in it as against all persons claiming to be entitled to the share. Such declaration and the receipt by the company of the consideration, if any, given for the share on its sale, re-allotment or disposal, together with the certificate, if any, for the share delivered to a purchaser or allottee of it, subject to the execution of a transfer if so required, constitutes a good title to the share. Where a forfeited share held in uncertificated form is to be transferred to any person, the Board may exercise any of the company’s powers to effect the transfer of the share to that person. The company may receive any consideration for the share on its disposal. The person to whom the share is sold, re-allotted or disposed of will be registered as its holder and will not be bound to see to the application of any consideration, nor will his title to the share be affected by any irregularity or invalidity in the proceedings in reference to the forfeiture, sale, re-allotment or disposal of the share.

 

8.8The Board may accept the surrender of any share liable to be forfeited under these articles and in any such case any reference in these articles to forfeiture includes surrender.

 

9.Transmission of shares

 

9.1If a member dies, the survivors or survivor (where the deceased was a joint holder) and the executors or administrators of the deceased (where he was a sole or only surviving holder) are the only persons recognised by the company as having any title to his interest in the shares. Nothing in this regulation will release the estate of a deceased joint holder from any liability in respect of any share jointly held by him.

 

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9.2Except as provided in these regulations, any person becoming entitled to a share in consequence of the death or bankruptcy of a member may, upon producing such evidence as to his title as may be required by the Board and subject to any provisions contained within the Listing Rules, elect either to be registered himself as the holder of the share or to have some person nominated by him registered as its holder.

 

9.3If the person becoming entitled by transmission to a certificated share elects to be registered himself, he must deliver or send to the company a notice in writing signed by him stating that he so elects. If he elects to have another person registered, and the share is a certificated share, he must signify his election by signing a transfer of the share in favour of that person. If the person elects to be registered or have another person registered, and the share is an uncertificated share, he must take any action as the Board may require including, without limitations, the execution of any document and the giving of any instruction by means of a relevant system to enable himself or that other person to be registered as the holder of the share. All the limitations, restrictions and provisions of these regulations relating to the right to transfer and the registration of transfers of shares apply to any such notice or transfer as if the death or bankruptcy of the member had not occurred and the notice or transfer were a transfer signed by such member.

 

9.4A person becoming entitled to a share in consequence of the death or bankruptcy of a member will, upon supply to the company of such evidence as the Board may reasonably require as to his title to the share, be entitled to receive and may give a discharge for all benefits arising or accruing on or in respect of the share, but he will not be entitled in respect of that share to receive notices of or to attend or vote at meetings of the company, or, except as previously stated, to any of the rights or privileges of a member until he has become a member in respect of the share. The Board may at any time give notice requiring any such person who is the holder of a fully paid up share to elect either to be registered himself or to transfer the share and, if within 60 days the notice is not complied with, such person will be deemed to have elected to be registered as a member in respect of the share and may be registered accordingly.

 

10.Disclosure of interests in shares

 

10.1Where the company serves a Section 793 Notice on a member, or another person whom the company knows or has reasonable cause to believe to be interested in shares held by that member, and the member or other person fails in relation to any such shares including any shares issued to such member after the date of the Section 793 Notice in respect of those shares (Default Shares) to give the company the information required within 14 days following the date of service of the Section 793 Notice, the Board may serve a Disenfranchisement Notice on the holder of such Default Shares.

 

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10.2Upon service of a Disenfranchisement Notice on a holder the sanctions set out in regulations 10.3 and 10.4 apply, unless the Board otherwise determines.

 

10.3The Member is not entitled in respect of the Default Shares to be present or to vote (either in person or by proxy) at a general meeting or at a separate meeting of the holders of a class of shares or on a poll or to exercise other rights conferred by membership in relation to the meeting or poll.

 

10.4Where the Default Shares represent at least 0.25 per cent. in nominal value of the issued shares of their class (calculated exclusive of any shares held as treasury shares):

 

10.4.1a dividend (or any part of a dividend) or other amount payable in respect of the Default Shares will be withheld by the company and no interest will be payable on it, and the member is not entitled to elect, under regulation 32.12, to receive shares instead of a dividend; and

 

10.4.2no transfer of any of the Default Shares will be registered unless:

 

10.4.2.1the transfer is an excepted transfer; or

 

10.4.2.2the member is not himself in default in supplying the information required and proves to the satisfaction of the Board that no person in default in supplying the information required is interested in any of the relevant shares;

 

10.4.3the registration of the Transfer is regulated by any regulations binding on the company in respect of uncertificated shares.

 

10.5The sanctions under regulations 10.1 to 10.4 cease to apply seven days after the earlier of receipt by the company of:

 

10.5.1notice of registration of an excepted transfer, in relation to the Default Shares; and

 

10.5.2all information required by the Section 793 Notice, in a form satisfactory to the Board, in relation to any Default Shares.

 

10.6Where the company issued a Section 793 Notice to another person on the basis of information obtained from a member in respect of a share held by the member, it must at the same time send a copy of the Section 793 Notice to the member, but the accidental omission to do so, or the non-receipt by the member of the copy, does not invalidate or otherwise affect the application of regulations 10.1 to 10.4.

 

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10.7For the purpose of regulations 10.1 to 10.6:

 

10.7.1interested has the meaning given to it in sections 820 to 825, CA 2006;

 

10.7.2reference to a person having failed or defaulted to give the company the information required by a Section 793 Notice, includes:

 

10.7.2.1reference to his having failed or refused to give all or any part of it; and

 

10.7.2.2reference to his having given information which he knows to be false in a material particular or having recklessly given information which is false in a material particular;

 

10.7.3excepted transfer means, in relation to shares held by a member:

 

10.7.3.1a transfer pursuant to acceptance of a takeover bid for the company as defined in regulation 2 of the Takeovers Directive (no. 2004/25/EC);

 

10.7.3.2a transfer in consequence of a sale made through a recognised investment exchange (as defined in the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000) or another stock exchange outside the United Kingdom on which shares in the capital of the company are normally traded; or

 

10.7.3.3a transfer which is shown to the satisfaction of the Board to be made in consequence of a bona fide sale of the whole of the beneficial interest in the shares to a person who is unconnected with the member and with any other person appearing to be interested in the shares.

 

10.8Regulations 10.1 to 10.7 are in addition to and without prejudice to the Statutes.

 

11.Increase of capital

 

11.1The company may from time to time by ordinary resolution increase its capital by such sum, to be divided into shares of such amounts and carrying such rights, as the resolution may prescribe.

 

11.2All new shares are subject to the provisions of these articles with reference to payment of calls, transfer, transmission and otherwise. Unless otherwise provided by these articles, by the resolution creating the new shares or by the conditions of issue, the new shares will upon issue be Ordinary Shares.

 

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12.Alteration of capital

 

12.1The company may by ordinary resolution:

 

12.1.1consolidate and divide all or any of its share capital into shares of larger nominal value than its existing shares; or

 

12.1.2subdivide its shares, or any of them, into shares of smaller nominal value subject nevertheless to the Statutes, and reclassify them, and so that the resolution by which any share is subdivided may determine that, as between the holders of the shares resulting from such subdivision, one or more of the shares may have any such preferred or other special rights over or may have such deferred rights or be subject to any such restrictions as compared with the others as the company has power to attach to new shares.

 

12.2The company may from time to time by special resolution reduce its share capital, any redenomination reserve, capital redemption reserve or share premium account, and (if permitted by the Statutes) any other non-distributable reserves in any manner authorised by the Statutes and diminish the amount of its share capital by the amount of the shares so cancelled.

 

12.3If any shares are consolidated or consolidated and then divided, the Board has power to deal with any fractions of shares which result. If the Board decides to sell any shares representing fractions, it may do so for the best price reasonably obtainable and distribute the net proceeds of sale among members in proportion to their fractional entitlements or, subject to the applicable law, retain those proceeds for the benefit of the company. The Board may arrange for any shares representing fractions to be entered in the register of members as certificated shares if they consider that this makes it easier to sell them. The Board may sell those shares to anyone, including the company if the Statutes allow, and may authorise any person to transfer or deliver the shares to the buyer or in accordance with the buyer’s instructions. The buyer shall not be bound to see to the application of the purchase money, nor shall his title to the share be affected by any irregularity or invalidity in the proceedings in reference to the sale.

 

13.General meetings

 

13.1Subject to the provisions of the Statutes, the annual general meeting will be held at such time and place or places as the Board may determine, any of which may be electronic facilities, and the Board may determine that the meeting will be hold solely by means of one or more such electronic facilities, with no physical place.

 

13.2The Board may call a general meeting whenever they think fit, and must do so when required under Chapter 3, CA 2006 or under the Listing Rules and in accordance thereof. General meetings must also be convened on such requisition, or in default may be convened by such requisitionists or by court order, as provided by section 305, CA 2006 or under the Listing Rules, and in accordance thereof.

 

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13.3In the case of any general meeting the Board or the chairman of the meeting may (in the notice of the meeting or subsequently, notwithstanding the specification in the notice of the general meeting) make arrangements for simultaneous attendance and participation at other places by members and proxies entitled to attend the general meeting, whether for convenience or because any such persons are excluded from the principal place due to lack of space. Such arrangements for simultaneous attendance at the meeting may include arrangements regarding the level of attendance at the other places but they must operate so that any members and proxies excluded from attendance at the principal place are able to attend at one of the other places. So as to facilitate the organisation and administration of any general meeting to which such arrangements apply, the Board may arrange for the issue of tickets, on a basis intended to afford to all members and proxies entitled to attend the meeting an equal opportunity of being admitted to the principal place, or impose some other random means of selection or otherwise as it, in its absolute discretion, considers appropriate. The Board may from time to time vary any such arrangements or make new arrangements in their place and the entitlement of any member or proxy to attend a general meeting at the principal place will be subject to such arrangements as are, for the time being, in force whether stated in the notice of the meeting to apply to that meeting or notified to the members concerned subsequent to the despatch of the notice of the meeting.

 

13.4Any general meeting will be duly constituted and its proceedings valid for so long as the chairman is satisfied that facilities are available, at each of the places at which persons are permitted by the Board in accordance with these articles to be present, to enable each member attending the meeting (by whatever means) to:

 

13.4.1participate in the business of the meeting;

 

13.4.2hear all the people who speak at the meeting;

 

13.4.3be heard by all other people attending and participating in the meeting; and

 

13.4.4exercise any right to vote on any resolution at the meeting so that his vote can be taken into account in deciding whether or not that resolution is passed.

 

A person who participates at any of those places shall be deemed for all purposes of the Statutes and these articles to be present or in attendance at, counted in the quorum for, and entitled to participate in the business of, the general meeting to the same extent as he would have been had he been physically present in the same location as the chairman of the meeting.

 

13.5All persons seeking to attend or participate in a general meeting by way of an electronic facility shall be responsible for maintaining adequate facilities to enable them to do so. Subject only to the right for the chairman to adjourn a meeting in accordance with regulation 15.6, any inability of any number of persons to attend or participate in a general meeting shall not invalidate the proceedings of that meeting.

 

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13.6For the purpose of these articles, any general meeting will be treated as being held and taking place at the principal place unless the notice of meeting says otherwise or the chairman of the meeting decides otherwise.

 

14.Notice of general meetings

 

14.1Subject to the provisions of section 307, CA 2006, an annual general meeting must be called by at least 21 days’ notice, and all other general meetings must be called by at least 14 days’ notice. The notice is exclusive of the day on which it is served, or deemed to be served, and of the day for which it is given.

 

14.2Every notice must specify the principal place, any other place at which members or proxies are to be permitted to be present, the day and the time of meeting, the general nature of the business to be conducted and such other information as is required by law, and in the case of an annual general meeting, must specify the meeting as such. For any of those places that is an electronic facility, the notice shall specify the means of attendance and participation and any known access, identification and security requirements in accordance with regulation 15.1.

 

14.3Notices must be given in the manner stated in these articles to all the members holding legal title to shares, other than those who under the provisions of these articles or under the rights attached to the shares held by them are not entitled to receive the notice, to each of the Directors and to the auditors.

 

14.4Notwithstanding that it is called by shorter notice than that specified in regulation 14.1, a meeting of the company is deemed to have been duly called if it is so agreed:

 

14.4.1in the case of a meeting called as an annual general meeting, by all the members entitled to attend and vote at it; or

 

14.4.2in the case of any other meeting, by a majority in number of the members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, being a majority together holding not less than 95 per cent. in nominal value of the shares giving that right (excluding any shares held as treasury shares).

 

14.5If the Board, in its absolute discretion, considers that it is impractical or unreasonable for any reason to hold a general meeting on the date or at the time or place (or places) specified in the notice calling the general meeting, it may postpone the general meeting to another date, time and/or place (or places).

 

14.6The accidental omission to give notice of a meeting or resolution or to send any notification when required by the Statutes or these articles relating to the publication of a notice of meeting on a website or (in cases where proxies are sent out with the notice) the accidental omission to send a proxy to, or the non-receipt of any such notice, resolution, notification or proxy by, any person entitled to receive it will not invalidate the proceedings at that meeting.

 

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14.7In every notice calling a meeting of the company or any class of the members of the company, there will appear with reasonable prominence a statement that a member entitled to attend and vote is entitled to appoint one or more proxies to exercise all the member’s rights and to attend, speak and vote instead of him, and that a proxy need not also be a member.

 

14.8Where special notice of a resolution is required by any provision contained in CA 2006, the resolution is not effective unless notice of the intention to move it has been given to the company not fewer than 28 days, or such shorter period as CA 2006 permits, before the meeting at which it is moved, and the company must give to its members notice of any such resolution as required by and in accordance with the provisions of CA 2006.

 

14.9It is the duty of the company, subject to the provisions of CA 2006, on the requisition in writing of such number of members as is specified in CA 2006 and, unless the company otherwise resolves, at the expense of the requisitionists:

 

14.9.1to give to members entitled to receive notice of the next annual general meeting notice of any resolution which may properly be moved and is intended to be moved at that meeting; and

 

14.9.2to circulate to members entitled to have notice of any general meeting sent to them, a statement of not more than 1,000 words with respect to the matter referred to in any proposed resolution or the business to be dealt with at that meeting.

 

15.Proceedings at general meetings

 

15.1The Board or the chairman of the meeting may direct that members or proxies wishing to attend any general meeting must comply with such requirements as they or he consider appropriate in the circumstances for the purpose of ensuring the security and orderly operation of the meeting, including (a) in the case of physical attendance at the meeting, identification and searches and (b) in the case of attendance by means of an electronic facility, measures to identify those taking part and ensure the integrity and stability of the electronic facility (including any voting facility). The Board or the chairman may, in their or his absolute discretion, refuse entry to, or eject from, a general meeting any person who fails to comply with these requirements.

 

15.2No business may be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum is present. Except as otherwise provided in these articles, two persons entitled to vote at the meeting, each being a member or a proxy for a member or a representative of a corporation which is a member, duly appointed as such in accordance with the Statutes, representing in the aggregate at least 15 per cent. of the total voting rights of all the members having the right to vote at the meeting, shall constitute a quorum. If at any time the company only has one member, such member in person, by proxy or if a corporation by its representative, shall constitute a quorum.

 

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15.3If within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting a quorum is not present, the meeting, if convened on the requisition of, or by, members, will be dissolved. In any other case, it will stand adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same time and place (or places), or to such other day and at such other time and place (or places) as the Board may determine.

 

15.4If, at such adjourned meeting, a quorum is not present within 15 minutes from the time appointed for holding the meeting, the member or members present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote will have power to decide upon all matters which could properly have been disposed of at the meeting as originally convened. When a meeting is adjourned for 30 days or more, the company must give at least seven clear days’ notice, specifying the place (or places), the day and the time of the adjourned meeting and that the member or members present will form a quorum, but, subject to the Statutes, it will not be necessary for the notice to give any details of the business to be transacted at the adjourned meeting. Except as stated, it will not be necessary to give any notice of an adjournment.

 

15.5The chairman, if any, of the Board, or in his absence some other Director nominated by the chairman in writing, will preside as chairman at every general meeting of the company, but if at any meeting neither the chairman nor such other Director is present within 15 minutes after the time appointed for holding the meeting, or if neither of them is willing to act as chairman, the Directors present may choose some Director present to be chairman, or if no Director is present, or if all the Directors present decline to take the chair, the members present may choose some member present to be chairman.

 

15.6The chairman may, with the consent of any meeting at which a quorum is present, and must if so directed by the meeting, adjourn the meeting from time to time and from place to place, but no business may be transacted at any adjourned meeting except business which might lawfully have been transacted at the meeting as originally convened. If it appears to the chairman that the facilities or security at any place at which persons are permitted by the Board in accordance with these articles to be present at the meeting are inadequate for the purposes referred to in regulation 13.4, or that an adjournment is otherwise necessary so that the business of the meeting may be properly conducted, the chairman may, without the consent of the meeting, interrupt or adjourn the general meeting.

 

15.7At any general meeting, a resolution put to the vote of the meeting is decided on a show of hands, unless before or upon the declaration of the result of the show of hands a poll is demanded:

 

15.7.1by the chairman; or

 

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15.7.2by not fewer than five members present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote at the meeting; or

 

15.7.3by a member or members representing not less than one tenth of the total voting rights of all the members having the right to vote at the meeting; or

 

15.7.4by a member or members holding shares of the company conferring a right to vote at the meeting, being shares on which an aggregate sum has been paid up equal to not less than one tenth of the total sum paid up on all the shares conferring that right.

 

15.8Unless a poll is so demanded, a declaration by the chairman that a resolution has been carried, or carried unanimously or by a particular majority, or lost, or not carried by a particular majority, and an entry to that effect in the book containing the minutes of the proceedings of general meetings of the company is conclusive evidence of the fact without proof of the number or proportion of the votes recorded in favour of or against such resolution.

 

15.9The instrument appointing a proxy to vote at a meeting is deemed also to confer authority to demand or join in demanding a poll and to vote on a poll on the election of a chairman and on a motion to adjourn a meeting. For the purposes of regulation 15.7, a demand by a person as proxy for a member is the same as a demand by the member.

 

15.10If any votes are counted which ought not to have been counted or might have been rejected, or if any votes are not counted which ought to have been counted, the error will not vitiate the result of the voting unless it is pointed out at the same meeting, or at any adjournment of it, and it is in the opinion of the chairman of the meeting of sufficient magnitude to vitiate the result of the voting.

 

15.11In the case of a resolution duly proposed as a special resolution no amendment, other than an amendment to correct a patent error, may be considered or voted upon. In the case of a resolution duly proposed as an ordinary resolution, no amendment, other than an amendment to correct a patent error, may be considered or voted upon unless, either at least 48 hours prior to the time appointed for holding the meeting or adjourned meeting at which such ordinary resolution is to be proposed notice in writing of the terms of the amendment and intention to move it is lodged at the Office, or the chairman, in his absolute discretion, decides that it may be considered or voted upon. If an amendment is proposed to any resolution under consideration but is ruled out of order by the chairman of the meeting the proceedings on the substantive resolution will not be invalidated by any error in such ruling.

 

15.12Subject to the provisions of regulation 15.13, if a poll is duly demanded, it will be taken in such manner as the chairman may direct, including the use of ballot or voting papers or tickets, and the result of a poll will be deemed to be the resolution of the meeting at which the poll was demanded. The chairman may, in the event of a poll, appoint scrutineers, who need not be members, and may fix some place (or places) and time for the purpose of declaring the result of the poll.

 

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15.13A poll demanded on the election of a chairman or on a question of adjournment must be taken immediately. A poll demanded on any other question must be taken immediately or at such time and place (or places) as the chairman directs, not being more than 30 days from the date of the meeting or the adjourned meeting at which the poll was demanded. No notice need be given of a poll not taken immediately if the time and place (or places) at which it is to be taken are announced at the meeting at which it is demanded. In any other case, at least seven days’ notice must be given specifying the time and place (or places) at which the poll is to be taken.

 

15.14In the case of an equality of votes, whether on a show of hands or on a poll, the chairman of the meeting at which the show of hands takes place or at which the poll is demanded is entitled to a further or casting vote.

 

15.15The demand for a poll will not prevent the continuance of a meeting for the transaction of any business other than the question on which the poll has been demanded.

 

15.16A demand for a poll may, before the poll is taken, be withdrawn but only with the consent of the chairman, and a demand so withdrawn will not be taken to have invalidated the result of a show of hands declared before the demand was made. If a poll is demanded before the declaration of the result of a show of hands and the demand is duly withdrawn with the consent of the chairman, the meeting will continue as if the demand had not been made.

 

16.Votes of members

 

16.1Subject to any special rights or restrictions as to voting attached to any share by or in accordance with these articles, every member entitled to vote, whether personally present at a meeting or represented by one or more duly appointed proxies or one or more duly authorised corporate representatives, has one vote on both a show of hands and on a vote by poll for each share of which he is the holder. Voting shall be on a count of votes. The Board may determine the right to vote at a meeting by reference to the register of members as at a time determined by the Board that is not more than 48 hours (or such longer period as may be allowed by the Statutes) before the time for the holding of the meeting.

 

16.2In the case of joint holders of a share, the person whose name appears first in the Register is entitled, to the exclusion of the other joint holders, to vote, whether in person or by proxy, in respect of the share.

 

16.3A member who is a patient within the meaning of the Mental Health Act 1983 may vote, whether on a show of hands or on a poll, by his receiver, curator bonis, or other person appointed by such court (who may on a poll vote by proxy) provided that such evidence as the Board may require of the authority of the person claiming to vote has been deposited at the Office not fewer than 48 hours before the time for holding the meeting or adjourned meeting at which such person claims to vote.

 

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16.4No member is entitled to be present or to be counted in the quorum or vote, either in person or by proxy, at any general meeting or at any separate meeting of the holders of a class of shares or on a poll or to exercise other rights conferred by membership in relation to the meeting or poll, unless all calls or other monies due and payable in respect of the member’s share or shares have been paid. This restriction ceases on payment of the amount outstanding and all costs, charges and expenses incurred by the company by reason of non-payment.

 

16.5The company shall not be obliged to ascertain whether a proxy or representative of a corporation has voted in accordance with a member’s instructions and the failure of a proxy or representative so to do shall not vitiate the decision of the meeting on any resolution. No objection may be raised to the qualification of any voter except at the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the vote objected to is given or cast, and every vote not disallowed at such meeting will be valid for all purposes. Any such objection made in due time will be referred to the chairman of the meeting, whose decision is final, binding and conclusive.

 

16.6On a poll, votes may be given either in person or by proxy and a member entitled to more than one vote need not, if he votes, use all his votes or cast all the votes he uses in the same way.

 

16.7Any person, whether a member or not, may be appointed to act as a proxy. A member may appoint more than one proxy to attend the same meeting so long as each proxy is appointed to exercise the rights attached to a different share or shares held by that member. Deposit of an instrument of proxy does not preclude a member from attending and voting in person at the meeting or any adjournment of it.

 

16.8The appointment of a proxy must be in any usual form, or such other form as may be approved by the Board, and must be signed by the appointor or by his agent duly authorised in writing or if the appointor is a corporation, must be either under its common seal or signed by an officer or agent so authorised. If the appointment is in electronic form, it must be executed on behalf of the appointor. The Board may, but will not be bound to, require evidence of authority of such officer or agent. An instrument of proxy need not be witnessed.

 

16.9The appointment of a proxy and (if required by the Board) any power of attorney or other authority under which it is executed, or a certified copy of such authority, must be delivered to the Office, or such other place (or places) specified for that purpose in the notice calling the meeting, or in any such proxy (or, where the appointment of the proxy was contained in an electronic communication, at the electronic address of the company), not fewer than 48 hours before the time appointed for holding the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the person named in the instrument proposes to vote (or such other time as may be specified for that purpose in the notice calling the meeting or in any such proxy in accordance with the Statutes). In default, the proxy will not be valid, but the Board may decide in any particular case to treat a proxy appointment as valid notwithstanding the default. The appointment of a proxy to vote at any meeting and deposited as set out in this regulation will authorise the proxy so appointed to vote on any poll taken or demanded at such meeting or at any adjournment of such meeting.

 

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16.10In relation to any shares which are held in uncertificated form, the Board may from time to time permit appointments of a proxy to be made by means of an electronic communication in the form of an uncertificated proxy instruction (that is, a properly authenticated dematerialised instruction, or other instruction or notification, which is sent by means of the relevant system concerned and received by such participant in that system acting on behalf of the company as the Board may prescribe, in such form and subject to such terms and conditions as may from time to time be prescribed by the Board and subject always to the facilities and requirements of the relevant system concerned). The Board may in a similar manner permit supplements to, or amendments or revocations of, any such uncertificated proxy instruction to be made by like means. The Board may in addition, subject to the Uncertificated Securities Regulations, prescribe the method of determining the time at which any such properly authenticated dematerialised instruction or other instruction or notification is to be treated as received by the company or such participant. The Board may treat any such uncertificated proxy instruction which purports to be or is expressed to be sent on behalf of a holder of a share as sufficient evidence of the authority of the person sending that instruction to send it on behalf of that holder.

 

16.11No appointment of a proxy will be valid after the expiry of 12 months from the date of its execution, or its receipt by the participant in the relevant system concerned acting on behalf of the company, except at an adjourned meeting or on a poll demanded at a meeting or an adjourned meeting in cases where the meeting was originally held within 12 months from such date.

 

16.12A vote given in accordance with the terms of a proxy or by the duly authorised representative of a corporate member or a poll demanded by proxy or by the duly authorised representative of a corporate member will be valid, notwithstanding, in the case of a proxy, the previous death or insanity of the principal, or the revocation of the instrument of proxy or of the authority under which the instrument of proxy was executed, provided that no notice in writing (including by electronic communication) of such death, insanity or revocation has been received by the company at the Office at least two hours before the commencement of the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the proxy is used.

 

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16.13For the purposes of regulations 16.9 to 16.12 electronic address includes in the case of any uncertificated proxy instructions an identification number of a participant in the relevant system concerned.

 

16.14The Board may at the expense of the company send, by post or otherwise, to the members proxies, with or without provision for their return prepaid, for use at any general meeting or at any separate meeting of the holders of any class of shares of the company either in blank or nominating in the alternative any one or more of the Directors or any other persons. If, for the purpose of any meeting, invitations to appoint as proxy a person, or one of a number of persons, specified in the invitations are issued at the company’s expense, they will be issued to all, and not to some only, of the members entitled to be sent a notice of the meeting and to vote at it by proxy.

 

16.15In calculating any periods mentioned in this regulation 16 no account will be taken of any part of a day that is not a working day (within the meaning of section 1173, CA 2006).

 

17.Corporations acting by representatives

 

Any corporation which is a member of the company may by resolution of its directors or other governing body authorise any person or persons as it thinks fit to act as its representative or representatives at any meeting of the company or of any class of members of the company. The person or persons so authorised will be entitled to exercise the same powers on behalf of the corporation which he or they represent as the corporation could exercise if it were an individual member of the company and the corporation will, for the purposes of these articles, be deemed to be present in person at any such meeting if any person so authorised is present at it.

 

18.Directors

 

18.1Unless otherwise determined by the company in general meeting, the number of Directors is not subject to a maximum but must not be fewer than three.

 

18.2The Directors from time to time will be categorised into three classes, as follows:

 

18.2.1Class A Directors, appointed as Director of the company for a one-year term (subject to reappointment in accordance with these articles);

 

18.2.2Class B Directors, appointed as Director of the company for a two-year term (subject to reappointment in accordance with these articles); and

 

18.2.3Class C Directors, appointed as Director of the company for a three- year term (subject to reappointment in accordance with these articles).

 

18.3Upon appointment a Director will be categorised into a specific class of Directors. A Director of any class can at the end of his term be re-appointed as a director in accordance with regulation 23, and at the time of such reappointment will be categorised into the appropriate class (which can be a different class from the one in which such director was previously categorised).

 

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18.4A Director is not required to hold any share qualification but is nevertheless entitled to attend and speak at any general meeting or at any separate meeting of the holders of any class of shares of the company.

 

18.5The chairman of the Board shall be elected by the shareholders in general meeting.

 

18.6Without derogating from the rights of the other Directors, the chairman shall schedule the Board meetings and set their agenda.

 

18.7Unless determined otherwise by the Board or by law, the chairman shall appoint the chairpersons and members of committees of the Board.

 

18.8Subject to the other provisions in these articles each Director shall be elected for a term of not more than three years. At the end of such term, each such Director may stand for re-election.

 

19.Alternate Directors

 

19.1Any Director, other than an alternate Director, may at any time appoint any other Director, or any person approved by resolution of the Board, to be an alternate Director of the company, and may at any time remove any alternate Director so appointed by him from office and, subject to such approval by the Board, appoint another person in his place. An alternate Director so appointed is not required to hold any share qualification.

 

19.2Subject to his giving to the company an address at which notices may be served upon him, an alternate Director is entitled to receive notices of all meetings of the Board and to attend and vote as a Director at any such meeting at which the Director appointing him is not personally present, and generally to perform all the functions of his appointor as a Director in the absence of such appointor.

 

19.3An alternate Director will cease to be an alternate Director on the happening of any event which, if he were a Director, would cause him to vacate such office or if his appointor ceases for any reason to be a Director. If, however, any Director retires whether by rotation or otherwise but is reappointed by the meeting at which such retirement took effect, any appointment made by him pursuant to regulation 19.1 which was in force immediately prior to his retirement will continue to operate after his re-appointment as if he had not so retired.

 

19.4All appointments and removals of alternate Directors must be effected by notice in writing signed by the Director making or revoking such appointment sent to or left at the Office.

 

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19.5Except as otherwise provided in these articles, an alternate Director is deemed for all purposes to be an officer of the company and is alone responsible to the company for his own acts and defaults, and he is not deemed to be the agent of or for the Director appointing him. An alternate Director is not entitled to receive any remuneration from the company for his services as such but his remuneration is payable out of the remuneration payable to the Director appointing him, and will consist of such part, if any, of the latter’s remuneration as is agreed between them.

 

20.Powers and duties of Directors

 

20.1The business of the company is managed by the Board who may exercise all such powers of the company as are not by the Statutes or by these articles required to be exercised by the company in general meeting, subject nevertheless to the provisions of these articles and of the Statutes, and to such directions, whether or not inconsistent with these articles, as may be prescribed by the company by special resolution. No such direction and no alteration of these articles will invalidate any prior act of the Board which would have been valid if such direction or alteration had not been given or made. The general powers given by this regulation are not limited or restricted by any special authority or power given to the Board by any other regulation.

 

20.2The Board may from time to time provide for the management and transaction of the affairs of the company in any specified locality, including abroad, in such manner as they think fit, and the provisions contained in regulations 20.3 to 20.5 are without prejudice to the general powers conferred by this regulation.

 

20.3The Board may establish, hire or contract any councils, committees, local boards or agencies for managing any of the affairs of the company, either in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, and (subject to regulation 18.7) may appoint any persons to be members of such local boards, or managers or agents, and may fix their remuneration, and may delegate to any council, committee, local board, manager or agent any of the powers, duties, authorities and discretions vested in the Board, with power to sub-delegate, and may authorise the members of any local board, or any of them, to fill any vacancies in it, and to act notwithstanding vacancies. Any such appointment or delegation may be made upon such terms and subject to such conditions as the Board think fit, and (subject to regulation 18.7) the Board may remove any person so appointed, and may annul or vary any such delegation, but no person dealing in good faith and without notice of any such annulment or variation will be affected by it.

 

20.4The Board may from time to time, and at any time, appoint, whether by power of attorney or otherwise, any corporation, firm or person, or any fluctuating body of persons, whether nominated directly or indirectly by the Board, to be the agent of the company for such purposes and with such powers, authorities and discretions, not exceeding those vested in or exercisable by the Board under these articles, and for such period and subject to such conditions as they may think fit. Any such appointment may contain such provisions for the protection and convenience of persons dealing with any such agent as the Board may think fit, and may also authorise any such agent to sub-delegate all or any of the powers, authorities and discretions vested in him.

 

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20.5The Board may exercise the powers conferred upon the company by section 129, CA 2006 with regard to the keeping of an overseas branch register and the Board may, subject to the provisions of the Statutes, make and vary such regulations as they may think fit respecting the keeping of any such register.

 

20.6The Board may establish and maintain, or procure the establishment and maintenance of, any pension, annuity or superannuation funds, whether contributory or otherwise, for the benefit of, and give or procure the giving of donations, gratuities, pensions, allowances and emoluments to, any persons who are or were at any time Directors of or in the employment or service of the company, or of any company which is a subsidiary of the company or is allied to or associated with the company or any such subsidiary or of any of the predecessors in business of the company or any such other company, or who may be or have been Directors or officers of the company, or of any such other company, and to the wives, widows, families and dependants of any such persons.

 

20.7Subject to particulars with respect to the proposed payment being disclosed to the members of the company and to the proposal being approved by the company by ordinary resolution, if the Statutes so require, any Director who holds or has held any executive position or agreement for services is entitled to participate in and retain for his own benefit any such donation, gratuity, pension, allowance or emolument.

 

20.8The Board may also establish, subsidise and subscribe to any institutions, associations, societies, clubs or funds calculated to be for the benefit of, or to advance the interests and well-being of, the company or of any person or any other company mentioned in regulation 20.6, and make payments for or towards the insurance of any such person and subscribe or guarantee money for charitable or benevolent objects, or for any exhibition or for any political, public, general or useful object, and do any of such matters, either alone or in conjunction with any company mentioned in regulation 20.6.

 

20.9The Board may exercise the voting power conferred by the shares in any other company held or owned by the company or exercisable by members of the Board as directors of such other company in such manner in all respects as they think fit, including its exercise in favour of any resolution appointing themselves or any of them directors or other officers or employees of such company or voting or providing for the payment of remuneration to such officers or employees.

 

20.10All cheques, promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange and other negotiable or transferable instruments and all receipts for money paid to the company, must be signed, drawn, accepted, endorsed or otherwise executed, as the case may be, in such manner as the Board may from time to time determine by resolution.

 

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21.Borrowing powers

 

21.1The Board may exercise all the powers of the company to borrow money and to mortgage or charge its undertaking, property and uncalled capital, or any part of it, and subject to the provisions of the Statutes, to issue debentures and other securities whether outright or as collateral security for any debt, liability or obligation of the company or of any third party.

 

21.2The Board may secure or provide for the payment of any money to be borrowed or raised by a mortgage of or charge upon all or any part of the undertaking or property of the company, both present and future, and upon any capital remaining unpaid upon the shares of the company whether called up or not, or by any other security. The Board may confer upon any mortgagees or persons in whom any debenture or security is vested such rights and powers as they think necessary or expedient. They may vest any property of the company in trustees for the purpose of securing any money so borrowed or raised and confer upon the trustees, or any receiver to be appointed by them, or by any debenture holder, such rights and powers as the Board may think necessary or expedient in relation to the undertaking or property of the company or its management or realisation, or the making, receiving, or enforcing of calls upon the members in respect of unpaid capital, and otherwise. The Board may make and issue debentures to trustees for the purpose of further security and the company may remunerate any such trustees.

 

21.3The Board may give security for the payment of any money payable by the company in same manner as for the payment of money borrowed or raised.

 

21.4The Board must keep a register of charges in accordance with the Statutes and the fee to be paid by any person, other than a creditor or member of the company for each inspection of the register of charges to be kept under CA 2006 is five pence.

 

22.Proceedings of committees

 

22.1Any committee formed pursuant to regulation 20.3 must, in the exercise of the powers, duties, discretions and authorities so delegated, conform to any regulations that may be imposed on it by the Board.

 

22.2The meetings and proceedings of any such committee consisting of two or more members are governed by the provisions of these articles regulating the meetings and proceedings of the Board so far as they are applicable and are not superseded by any regulations made by the Board under regulation 22.1. No resolution of a committee is effective unless a majority of its members voting are Directors.

 

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23.Appointment and retirement of Directors

 

23.1Subject to regulation 23.3, each Director shall retire at the next general meeting after the term of his office ends in accordance with regulation 18.2. A Director retiring at a general meeting, if he is not re-appointed, retains office until the meeting appoints someone in his place or, if it does not do so, until the end of that meeting.

 

23.2Subject to the provisions of the Statutes and of these articles, the Directors to retire in every year include, so far as necessary to obtain the required number, any Director who wishes to retire and not to offer himself for re-election. Any further Directors so to retire are those who have been longest in office since their last appointment or re-appointment but, as between persons who became or were last re-appointed Directors on the same day, those to retire are determined by the Board at the recommendation of the chairman of the Board. A retiring Director is eligible for re-appointment, subject as set out in these articles.

 

23.3In any two year period, a majority of the Directors must stand for re-election or replacement. In the event that this majority has not been met and the number of Directors eligible for retirement by rotation under the provisions of these articles are not met, any further Directors so to retire are those who have been longest in office since their last appointment or re-appointment but, as between persons who became or were last re-appointed Directors on the same day, those to retire are determined by the Board at the recommendation of the chairman of the Board. A retiring Director is eligible for re-appointment, subject as set out in these articles.

 

23.4The company at the meeting at which a Director retires in the manner set out in regulation 23.1 may fill the vacated office and, in default, the retiring Director, if willing to act, is deemed to have been re-appointed, unless at such meeting it is expressly resolved not to fill the vacancy, or a resolution for the re-appointment of such Director is put to the meeting and lost.

 

23.5No person other than a Director retiring at the meeting, unless recommended by the Directors for appointment, is eligible for appointment to the office of a Director at any general meeting unless, not fewer than seven more than 42 clear days before the day appointed for the meeting, there is given to the company notice in writing by some member duly qualified to be present and vote at the meeting for which such notice is given of his intention to propose such person for appointment stating the required particulars and, also, notice in writing signed by the person to be proposed of his willingness to be appointed.

 

23.6At a general meeting, a motion for the appointment of two or more persons as Directors by a single resolution will be void, unless a resolution that it is so made has been first agreed to by the meeting without any vote being given against it and, for the purpose of this regulation, a motion for approving a person’s appointment or for nominating a person for appointment is treated as a motion for his appointment.

 

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23.7The company may from time to time by ordinary resolution increase or reduce the number of Directors and may also determine in what rotation such increased or reduced number is to go out of office. Without prejudice to the provisions of regulation 23.8, the company may by ordinary resolution appoint any person to be a Director, either to fill a casual vacancy or as an additional Director.

 

23.8The Board and the company in general meeting each have power at any time, and from time to time, to appoint any person to be a Director, either to fill a casual vacancy or as an additional Director, but so that the total number of Directors does not at any time exceed the maximum number, if any, fixed by or in accordance with these articles. Subject to the provisions of the Statutes and of these articles, any Director so appointed by the Directors holds office only until the conclusion of the next following annual general meeting and is eligible for reappointment at that meeting. Any Director who retires under this regulation is not taken into account in determining the Directors who are to retire by rotation at such meeting.

 

23.9Any contract of employment entered into by a Director with the company may not include a term that it is to continue or may be continued, otherwise than at the instance of the company, for a period exceeding two years during which the employment either cannot be terminated by the company by notice or can be so terminated only in specified circumstances, unless such term is first approved by ordinary resolution of the company.

 

23.10There is no restriction as to the age of Directors except as required by the Statutes.

 

23.11Only such persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this regulation shall be eligible to serve as directors.

 

24.Disqualification and removal of Directors

 

24.1The office of a Director must be vacated in any of the following events:

 

24.1.1if, not being a Director who has agreed to serve as a Director for a fixed term, he resigns his office by notice in writing signed by him and authorised in such manner as the other Directors may require, sent to or left at the Office;

 

24.1.2if he becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors generally or applies to the court for an interim order under section 253, Insolvency Act 1986 in connection with a voluntary arrangement under that Act;

 

24.1.3an order is made by any court having jurisdiction on the ground, however formulated, of mental disorder for his detention or for the appointment of a guardian or receiver or other person, by whatever name called, to exercise powers with respect to his property or affairs;

 

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24.1.4if he is absent from meetings of the Directors for six successive months without leave, and his alternate Director, if any, has not during such period attended in his place, and the Directors resolve that his office be vacated;

 

24.1.5if he ceases to be a Director by virtue of any provision of the Statutes or pursuant to these articles; or

 

24.1.6if he becomes prohibited by law from being a Director (after taking into account any grace period provisions or exceptions that may apply).

 

24.2The company may in accordance with, and subject to the provisions of, the Statutes, by ordinary resolution of which special notice has been given, remove a Director before the expiry of his period of office and may appoint another person in his place. Such removal is without prejudice to any claim such Director may have for breach of any contract of service between him and the company. The person so appointed is subject to retirement at the same time as if he had become a Director on the day on which the Director in whose place he is appointed was last appointed or reappointed a Director.

 

25.Executive and other directors

 

25.1Subject to the provisions of the Statutes, the Board may from time to time and at any time appoint one or more of their body to hold any executive office in relation to the management of the business of the company on such terms, for such period and with or without such title(s) as they may decide. The Board may, from time to time, subject to the provisions of any service contract between the appointee(s) and the company, remove or dismiss him or them from such office and appoint another or others in his or their place or places.

 

25.2A Director who holds any such executive office is, while he continues to hold that office, subject to retirement by rotation in accordance with the provisions of regulation 23, and he is taken into account in determining the retirement by rotation of Directors. He is also, subject to the provisions of regulation 24.1 and of any service contract between him and the company, subject to the same provisions as to removal and as to vacation of office as the other Directors of the company. If he ceases to hold the office of Director for any cause, his appointment as the holder of an executive office will also terminate, unless otherwise determined by the Board.

 

25.3Subject to the Statutes, any Director may be paid by the company such remuneration for holding office as may be determined by the Board, which may consist of salary, commission, profit participation, share options, pension or insurance benefit or any combination of them, or otherwise.

 

25.4The Board may entrust to and confer upon any Director appointed to any such executive office any of the powers exercisable by them, other than the power to make calls, upon such terms and conditions and with such restrictions as the Board think fit, and either collaterally with or to the exclusion of their own powers, and may from time to time revoke, withdraw, alter or vary all or any of such powers.

 

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25.5Subject to the provisions of the Statutes, the Board may from time to time, and at any time, pursuant to this regulation appoint any person to any post with such descriptive title including that of Director, whether as executive, group, divisional, departmental, deputy, assistant, local, advisory director or otherwise, as they may determine. They may define, limit, vary and restrict the powers, authorities and discretions of any person so appointed and may fix and determine his remuneration and duties, and subject to any contract between him and the company, may remove from such post any person so appointed. A person so appointed is not a Director for any of the purposes of these articles or of the Statutes, and accordingly is not a member of the Board or of any committee of the Board, nor is he entitled to be present at any meeting of the Board or of any such committee, except at the request of the Board or of such committee. If present at such request, he is not entitled to vote at such meeting.

 

26.Directors’ interests

 

26.1A Director, including an alternate Director, may hold any other office or place of profit under the company, other than the office of auditor, in conjunction with his office of Director and may act in a professional capacity to the company, on such terms as to tenure of office, remuneration and otherwise as the Board may determine.

 

26.2Subject to the Statutes and to the provisions of these articles, no Director or intending Director, including an alternate Director, is disqualified by his office from contracting with the company either with regard to his tenure of any other office or place of profit, or as seller, purchaser or otherwise. No such contract, or any contract or arrangement entered into by or on behalf of the company in which any Director is in any way, whether directly or indirectly, interested, is liable to be avoided, nor is any Director so contracting or being so interested obliged to account to the company for any profit realised by any such contract or arrangement by reason of the Director holding that office or of his fiduciary relationship with the company.

 

26.3Any Director, including an alternate Director, may continue to be or become a director or other officer or member of or otherwise interested in any other company promoted by the company or in which the company may be interested, as a member or otherwise, or which is a holding company of the company or a subsidiary of any such holding company. No such Director is accountable for any remuneration or other benefits received by him as a director or other officer or member of, or from his interest in, any such other company. The Board may exercise the voting power conferred by the shares in any other company held or owned by the company, or exercisable by the directors of such other company, in such manner in all respects as they think fit, subject to the restrictions contained in regulation 26.14.

 

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26.4If a Director is in any way, directly or indirectly, interested in a proposed transaction or arrangement with the company, he must declare the nature and extent of his interest to the other Directors before the transaction or arrangement is entered into. This may (but need not) be done in any of the ways set out in regulation 26.5.

 

26.5If a Director is in any way, directly or indirectly, interested in a transaction or arrangement that has been entered into by the company (before or after he became a Director), he must declare the nature and extent of his interest to the other Directors (to the extent that he has not already declared it under regulation 26.4) as soon as is reasonably practicable. The declaration must be made at a meeting of the Board, by notice in writing under regulation 26.7 or by general notice under regulation 26.8.

 

26.6For the purposes of regulation 26.4 and regulation 26.5, subject to the Statutes:

 

26.6.1an alternate Director must declare any interest in a transaction or arrangement to which his appointment relates, but need not declare any other interest; and

 

26.6.2an interest of his appointor of which an alternate Director is aware (or ought reasonably to be aware) is treated as the interest of the alternate Director in addition to any interest which the alternate Director otherwise has, but need not be declared if the appointor has already declared it (or would not be required to declare it) in accordance with the relevant regulation.

 

26.7A Director may make a declaration of interest under regulation 26.4 or regulation 26.5 by sending notice in writing to the other directors in hard copy (by hand or post) or, if the recipient has agreed to receive it in electronic form, in an agreed electronic form by agreed electronic means. The making of a declaration under this regulation 26.7 is deemed to form part of the proceedings at the next meeting of the Board after the notice is given and must be recorded in the minutes of that meeting in accordance with regulation 30.

 

26.8A Director may satisfy his duty to make a declaration of interest under regulation 26.4 or regulation 26.5 by giving general notice to the other Directors to the effect that the Director has an interest (as member, officer, employee or otherwise) in a specified body corporate or firm, or is connected (for the purposes of the Statutes) with a specified person (other than a body corporate or firm), and is to be regarded as interested in any transaction or arrangement that may, after the date of the notice, be made with that body corporate, firm or person. The notice must state the nature and extent of the relevant interest or connection. The notice is not effective unless it is given at a meeting of the Board or the Director takes reasonable steps to secure that it is brought up and read at the next such meeting after it is given.

 

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26.9If a declaration of interest under regulation 26.4 or regulation 26.5 proves to be, or becomes, inaccurate or incomplete, the Director must make a further declaration.

 

26.10A Director need not declare an interest under regulation 26.4 or regulation 26.5:

 

26.10.1unless the Director is aware (or ought reasonably to be aware) of the interest and of the transaction or arrangement in question;

 

26.10.2if it cannot reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a conflict of interest;

 

26.10.3if, or to the extent that, the other Directors are already aware of it (and for this purpose the other Directors are treated as aware of anything of which they ought reasonably to be aware); or

 

26.10.4if, or to the extent that, it concerns terms of his service contract that have been or are to be considered by a meeting of the Board or by a committee of the Board appointed for the purpose.

 

26.11A Director may continue or become a director or other officer, employee or member of any company promoted by the company or in which it may be interested as a seller, shareholder, or otherwise, and no such Director is accountable for any remuneration or other benefits derived as director or other officer, employee or member of such company.

 

26.12Except as provided in regulation 26.14 or regulation 27 or elsewhere in these articles, a Director may not vote at a meeting of the Board or of a committee of the Board on any resolution concerning a matter in which he has, directly or indirectly, a material interest (other than an interest in shares or debentures or other securities of or in (or through) the company) which conflicts or may conflict with the interests of the company. For this purpose, a Director shall be deemed to have such a material interest in any contract, arrangement, transaction or other proposal concerning any other company in which he (either alone or together with any person connected with him, as provided in section 252, CA 2006) holds an interest representing one per cent. or more of any class of the equity share capital (calculated exclusive of any shares of that class held as treasury shares) of such company or of the voting rights available to members of the relevant company.

 

26.13A Director is not counted in the quorum at a meeting in relation to any resolution on which he is debarred from voting.

 

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26.14Notwithstanding the provisions of regulations 26.12, 26.13 and 27, a Director is entitled to vote and be counted in the quorum in respect of any resolution concerning any of the following matters:

 

26.14.1the giving of any security, guarantee or indemnity to him in respect of money lent or obligations incurred by him or by any other person at the request of or for the benefit of the company or any of its subsidiaries;

 

26.14.2the giving of any security, guarantee or indemnity to a third party in respect of a debt or obligation of the company or any of its subsidiaries for which he himself has assumed responsibility in whole or in part under a guarantee or indemnity or by the giving of security;

 

26.14.3any proposal concerning an offer of shares or debentures or other securities of or by the company or any of its subsidiaries for subscription or purchase in which offer he is or is to be interested as a participant as the holder of such shares, debentures or other securities or in its underwriting or sub-underwriting;

 

26.14.4any contract, arrangement, transaction or other proposal concerning any other company in which he (together with any person connected with him, as provided in section 252, CA 2006) is interested (directly or indirectly) whether as an officer, shareholder, creditor or otherwise, unless he (together with any person so connected with him) holds an interest representing one per cent. or more of any class of the equity share capital (calculated exclusive of any shares of that class held as treasury shares) of such company or of the voting rights available to members of the relevant company;

 

26.14.5any contract, arrangement, transaction or other proposal concerning the adoption, modification or operation of a superannuation fund or retirement, death or disability benefits scheme under which he may benefit and which has been approved by or is subject to and conditional upon approval by HM Revenue & Customs;

 

26.14.6any contract, arrangement, transaction or proposal concerning the adoption, modification or operation of any scheme for enabling employees including full time executive Directors of the company and/or any subsidiary to acquire shares of the company or any arrangement for the benefit of employees of the company or any of its subsidiaries, which does not award him any privilege or benefit not awarded to the employees to whom such scheme relates; or

 

26.14.7any contract, arrangement, transaction or proposal concerning insurance which the company proposes to maintain or purchase for the benefit of Directors or for the benefit of persons including Directors.

 

26.15A Director may not vote or be counted in the quorum on any resolution concerning his own appointment as the holder of any office or place of profit with the company or any company in which the company is interested, including fixing or varying the terms of his appointment or its termination.

 

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26.16Where proposals are under consideration concerning the appointment, including fixing or varying the terms of appointment, of two or more Directors to offices or employments with the company or any company in which the company is interested, such proposals may be divided and considered in relation to each Director separately. In such cases, each of the Directors concerned, if not debarred from voting under regulation 26.14.4, is entitled to vote and be counted in the quorum in respect of each resolution except that concerning his own appointment.

 

26.17If any question arises at any meeting as to the materiality of a Director’s interest or as to the entitlement of any Director to vote and such question is not resolved by his voluntarily agreeing to abstain from voting, such question must be referred to the chairman of the meeting and his ruling in relation to any other Director will be final and conclusive, except in a case where the nature or extent of the interests of the Director concerned have not been fairly disclosed. If the question concerns the chairman, it must be referred to such other Director present at the meeting, other than the chairman, as the Directors present appoint.

 

26.18Subject to the Statutes, the company may by ordinary resolution suspend or relax the provisions of regulations 26.4 to 26.17 to any extent or ratify any transaction not duly authorised by reason of a contravention of these articles.

 

27.Conflicts of interest requiring Board authorisation

 

27.1The Board may, if the quorum and voting requirements set out in this regulation 27 are satisfied, authorise any matter that would otherwise involve a Director (Relevant Director) breaching his duty under chapters 2 and 3 of part 10, CA 2006 to avoid conflicts of interest.

 

27.2Any Director (including the Relevant Director) may propose that the Relevant Director be authorised in relation to any matter which is the subject of such a conflict. The proposal and any authority given by the Board will be determined in the same way as any other matter proposed to and resolved by the Board under these articles, except that the Relevant Director and any other Director with a similar interest:

 

27.2.1will not count towards the quorum at the meeting at which the conflict is considered;

 

27.2.2may, if the Board so decides, be excluded from any Board meeting while the conflict is under consideration; and

 

27.2.3may not vote on any resolution authorising the conflict, but except that, if he or they in fact vote, the resolution will be valid if it would have been passed even if the vote or votes had not been counted.

 

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27.3Where the Board gives authority in relation to such a conflict:

 

27.3.1the Board may (whether at the time of giving the authority or at any time or times subsequently) impose such terms upon the Relevant Director and any other Director with a similar interest as it deems appropriate, including, without limitation, the exclusion of the Relevant Director and any other Director with a similar interest from the receipt of information, or participation in discussion (whether at meetings of the Board or otherwise) or voting relating to the conflict;

 

27.3.2the Relevant Director and any other Director with a similar interest will be obliged to comply with any terms imposed by the Board from time to time in relation to the conflict;

 

27.3.3the authority may also provide that where the Relevant Director, and any other Director with a similar interest, obtains information that is confidential to a third party, the Relevant Director or such other Director, as the case may be, will not be obliged to disclose that information to the company, or to use the information in relation to the company’s affairs, where to do so would amount to a breach of that confidence;

 

27.3.4the terms of the authority must be recorded in writing; and

 

27.3.5the authority may be withdrawn by the Board at any time.

 

28.Proceedings of Directors

 

28.1The Board may meet together for the despatch of business, adjourn and otherwise regulate their meetings as they think fit. Questions arising at any meeting are determined by a majority of votes. In case of an equality of votes, the chairman shall have a casting vote. A Director who is also an alternate Director is entitled, in the absence of the Director whom he is representing, to a separate vote on behalf of such Director in addition to his own vote. A Director may, and the Secretary on the requisition of a Director must, at any time call a meeting of the Board.

 

28.2Notice of meetings of the Board is deemed to be duly given to a Director if it is given to him personally or by word of mouth or sent in writing or other means to him at his last known address or any other address (including an electronic address) given by him from time to time to the company for this purpose. A Director may request the Board that notices of Board meetings will be sent in writing to him at an electronic address given by him to the company.

 

28.3The quorum necessary for the transaction of the business of the Board may be fixed by the Board, and unless so fixed at any other number, is a majority of the Board of Directors, to include (except in respect of any matter on which he is not eligible to vote) the Chairman of the Board. If a Board meeting is attended by a Director who is acting as an alternate for one or more other Directors, the Director or Directors for whom he is the alternate will be counted in the quorum despite their absence, and if on this basis there is a quorum the meeting may be held despite the fact that only one Director is physically present. A meeting of Directors for the time being at which a quorum is present is competent to exercise all powers and discretions for the time being exercisable by the Board.

 

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28.4All or any of the Directors, including alternates, or members of any committee of the Board may participate in a meeting of the Board or that committee by means of a conference telephone or any communication equipment which allows all persons participating in the meeting to hear each other. A person so participating is deemed to be present in person at the meeting and may vote or be counted in a quorum. Accordingly, a meeting of the Board or a committee of the Board may be held where each of those present or deemed to be present is in communication with the others only by telephone or other communication equipment. A meeting where those present or deemed to be present are in different locations is deemed to take place where the largest group of those participating is assembled, or, if there is no such group, where the chairman of the meeting then is.

 

28.5The continuing Directors may act notwithstanding any vacancy in their body. If the number of the Directors is less than the prescribed minimum, the remaining Director or Directors must immediately appoint an additional Director or additional Directors to make up such minimum or convene a general meeting of the company for the purpose of making such appointment. If there is no Director or Directors able or willing to act, any two members may summon a general meeting for the purpose of appointing Directors. Any additional Director so appointed holds office, subject to the provisions of the Statutes and these articles, only until the end of the annual general meeting of the company next following such appointment, unless he is re-elected during such meeting. He is eligible for re-election at such meeting and does not retire by rotation at such meeting nor is taken into account in determining the rotation or retirement of Directors at such meeting.

 

28.6The Board may from time to time elect from their number, and remove, one or more deputy chairmen or vice chairmen and determine the period for which any such person is to hold office. The chairman of the Board or, if he is not eligible and willing to act, a deputy chairman or vice chairman (to be chosen, if in each case there are more than one, by agreement amongst them or, failing agreement, by lot) or in the absence of any of them, some other Director nominated by a majority of the other Directors in writing, presides at all meetings of the Board. If no such chairman, deputy chairman or vice chairman is elected, or if at any meeting the chairman or the deputy chairman or the vice chairman or such other Director is not present within five minutes after the time appointed for holding it, or if none of them is willing to act as chairman, the Directors present may choose one of their number to be chairman of the meeting. If at any time there is no chairman of the Board or he is prevented by incapacity from doing anything (including forming part of a quorum) reserved to the chairman by these articles, that thing may be done by a deputy chairman or vice chairman or, if there is none of these who is not incapacitated, any other Director.

 

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28.7A resolution in writing, agreed to by all the Directors for the time being entitled to vote on the relevant matter at a meeting of the Board or of a committee of the Board (if that number is sufficient to constitute a quorum), is as effective as a resolution passed at a Board meeting or of a committee of the Board, duly convened and held. For this purpose a Director signifies his consent to a proposed resolution in writing when the company receives from him or his alternate a document or an electronic communication at such address (including an electronic address) as may be specified by the company indicating his agreement to the resolution, authenticated in the manner required by section 1146, CA 2006.

 

28.8A meeting of the Directors for the time being at which a quorum is present is competent to exercise all powers and discretions for the time being exercisable by the Board.

 

28.9All acts done bona fide by any meeting of Directors, or of a committee of the Board, or by any person acting as Director, are as valid as if every such person had been duly appointed, was qualified, had continued to be a Director and had been entitled to vote, notwithstanding that it is afterwards discovered that there was some defect in the appointment of any such director or person acting as a Director, or that they or any of them were disqualified, or had vacated office, or were not entitled to vote.

 

29.Secretary

 

29.1Subject to the Statutes, the Secretary of the company is appointed by the Board on such terms and for such periods as they may think fit, and the Board may so appoint one or more assistant or deputy Secretary. Any Secretary or assistant or deputy Secretary so appointed may at any time be removed from office by the Board, without prejudice to any claim for damages for breach of any contract of service between him and the company.

 

29.2Anything by CA 2006 required or authorised to be done by the Secretary may, if the office is vacant or there is for any other reason no Secretary capable of acting, be done by any assistant or deputy Secretary or, if there is no assistant or deputy Secretary capable of acting, by any officer of the company authorised generally or specifically in that behalf by the Board. Any provision of the Statutes or of these articles requiring or authorising a thing to be done by a Director and Secretary is not satisfied by its being done by the same person acting both as Director and as, or in the place of, the Secretary.

 

30.Minutes

 

30.1The Board must ensure that minutes are made of:

 

30.1.1all appointments of officers and committees made by the Board;

 

30.1.2all declarations of Directors’ interests pursuant to regulation 26.7;

 

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30.1.3the names of the Directors present at each meeting of Board and of any committee of the Board and all business transacted at such meetings; and

 

30.1.4all orders, resolutions and proceedings at all meetings of the company, of the holders of any class of shares in the company and of the Board and of committees of the Board.

 

30.2Any such minute, if purporting to be signed by the chairman of the meeting at which the proceedings were held, or by the chairman of the next succeeding meeting, is prima facie evidence of the matters stated in such minutes without any further proof.

 

31.Seal and authentication of documents

 

31.1The Board may provide a common seal for the company and have power from time to time to destroy it and to substitute a new seal for it.

 

31.2A document expressed to be executed by the company signed as provided by section 44(2), CA 2006 has effect as if executed under seal.

 

31.3The Board may exercise the powers conferred on the company by section 50, CA 2006 with regard to having an official seal solely for sealing documents creating or evidencing securities of the company. Any such documents to which such official seal is affixed need not be signed by any person.

 

31.4The Board must provide for the safe custody of the seal and the seal may never be used except by the authority of a resolution of the Board or of a committee of the Board authorised for that purpose by the Board. The Board may from time to time make such regulations as it thinks fit, subject to the provisions of these articles in relation to share and debenture certificates, determining the persons and the number of such persons who may sign every instrument to which the seal is affixed and, until otherwise so determined, every such instrument must be signed by one Director and must be countersigned by a second Director or by the Secretary.

 

31.5The company may have official seals under the provisions of section 49, CA 2006 for use abroad. Wherever reference is made in these articles to the seal, the reference, when and so far as may be applicable, is deemed to include any such official seal.

 

31.6Any Director or the Secretary or any person appointed by the Board for the purpose has power to authenticate any documents affecting the constitution of the company and any resolutions passed by the company or the Board or any committee of the Board, and any books, records, documents and accounts relating to the business of the company, and to certify copies of them or extracts from them as true copies or extracts. A document purporting to be a copy of a resolution, or a copy of or an extract from the minutes of a meeting of the company or of the Board or any committee of the Board, which is certified as stated, is conclusive evidence in favour of all persons dealing with the company upon the faith of any such copy that such resolution has been duly passed or, as the case may be, that such copy or extract is a true and accurate record of proceedings at a duly constituted meeting.

 

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32.Dividends

 

32.1The profits of the company available for distribution and resolved to be distributed are applied in the payment of dividends to the members in accordance with their respective rights and priorities. The company in general meeting may declare dividends accordingly.

 

32.2No dividend or interim dividend is payable otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of the Statutes and no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by the Board.

 

32.3Subject to the rights of persons, if any, entitled to shares with preferential or other special rights as to dividends, all dividends must be declared and paid according to the amounts paid up on the shares in respect of which the dividend is paid. No amount paid up on a share in advance of the date on which a call is payable may be treated as paid up for this purposes. All dividends will be apportioned and paid pro rata according to the amounts paid up on the shares during any portion or portions of the period in respect of which the dividend is paid, except that if any share is issued on terms providing that it carries any particular rights as to dividend, such share will rank for dividend accordingly.

 

32.4Subject to the provisions of the Statutes and of these articles, the Board may, if they think fit, from time to time pay to the members such interim dividends as appear to the Board to be justified by the distributable profits of the company. If at any time the share capital of the company is divided into different classes, the Board may pay such interim dividends in respect of those shares in the capital of the company which confer on their holders deferred or non-preferred rights, as well as in respect of those shares which confer on their holders preferential rights with regard to dividend. No dividend, whether interim, final or otherwise, may be paid on shares carrying deferred or non-preferred rights if, at the time of payment, any preferential dividend is in arrear. The Board may also pay half-yearly, or at other suitable intervals to be settled by them, any dividend which may be payable at a fixed rate if they are of the opinion that the distributable profits justify the payment and if and to the extent that such payment is permitted by the Statutes. So long as the Board act in good faith, they will not incur any responsibility to the holders of shares conferring a preference for any damage that they may suffer by reason of the payment of an interim dividend on any shares having deferred or non-preferred rights.

 

32.5Subject to the provisions of the Statutes or as otherwise required by law, where any asset, business or property is bought by the company as from a past date, whether such date is before or after the incorporation of the company, the profits or losses attributable to it as from such date may at the discretion of the Board in whole or in part be carried to revenue account and treated for all purposes as profits or losses of the company. Except as stated, if any shares or securities are purchased cum dividend or interest, such dividend or interest may at the discretion of the Board be treated as revenue and it will not be obligatory to capitalise it or any part of it.

 

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32.6The Board may deduct from any dividend or other money payable to any member on or in respect of a share all sums of money, if any, presently payable by him to the company on account of calls or otherwise in relation to the shares of the company. The company may cease to send any cheque or warrant through the post for any dividend payable on any shares in the company which is normally paid in that manner on those shares if, in respect of at least two consecutive dividends payable on those shares, the cheques or warrants have been returned undelivered or remain uncashed or, if following one such occasion, reasonable enquiries have failed to establish any new address of the registered holder. Subject to the provisions of these articles, the company must recommence sending cheques or warrants in respect of dividends payable on those shares if the holder or person entitled by transmission claims the arrears of dividend and does not instruct the company to pay future dividends in some other way.

 

32.7The Board may retain the dividends payable upon shares in respect of which any person is, under the provisions as to the transmission of shares contained in these articles, entitled to become a member, or which any person is under those provisions entitled to transfer, until such person becomes a member in respect of such shares or transfers them.

 

32.8All dividends, interest or other sums payable and unclaimed for one year, after having been declared, may be invested or otherwise made use of by the Board for the benefit of the company until claimed and the company is not constituted a trustee in respect of them. No dividend will bear interest as against the company.

 

32.9Any dividend which has remained unclaimed for a period of 12 years from the date on which it becomes due for payment will, if the Board so resolve, be forfeited and cease to remain owing by the company and will from then on belong to the company absolutely.

 

32.10Any dividend or other money payable on or in respect of a share may be paid by cheque or warrant sent through the post to the registered address of the member or person entitled to it and, in the case of joint holders, to any one of such joint holders or, to such person and such address as the holder or joint holders may in writing direct. Every such cheque or warrant will be made payable to the order of the person to whom it is sent or to such other person as the holder or joint holders may in writing direct and payment of the cheque or warrant is a good discharge to the company. Every such cheque or warrant will be sent at the risk of the person entitled to the money.

 

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32.11If several persons are registered as joint holders of any share any one of them may give effectual receipts for any dividend or other money payable on or in respect of the share.

 

32.12The Board may, if authorised by an ordinary resolution of the company, offer any holders of Ordinary Shares the right to elect to receive Ordinary Shares, credited as fully paid, instead of cash in respect of the whole, or some part, to be determined by the Board, of any dividend specified by the ordinary resolution. The following provisions will apply:

 

32.12.1an ordinary resolution may specify a particular dividend or may specify all or any dividends declared within a specified period but such period may not end later than the beginning of the annual general meeting next following the date of the meeting at which the ordinary resolution is passed;

 

32.12.2the entitlement of each holder of Ordinary Shares to new Ordinary Shares is such that the relevant value of the entitlement is as nearly as possible equal to, but not greater than, the cash amount, disregarding any tax credit of the dividend that such holder elects to forgo. For this purpose, relevant value is calculated by reference to the average of the middle market quotations for the company’s Ordinary Shares on the relevant stock exchange, on the day on which the Ordinary Shares are first quoted “ex” the relevant dividend and the four subsequent dealing days or in such other manner as may be determined by or in accordance with the ordinary resolution. A certificate or report by the auditors as to the amount of the relevant value in respect of any dividend is conclusive evidence of that amount;

 

32.12.3on or as soon as practicable after announcing that they are to declare or recommend any dividend, the Board, if they intend to offer an election in respect of that dividend, must also announce that intention, and, after determining the basis of allotment, if the Board decide to proceed with the offer, must notify the holders of Ordinary Shares in writing of the right of election and specify the procedure to be followed and the place (or places) at which, and the latest time by which, elections must be lodged in order to be effective;

 

32.12.4the Board may not proceed with any election unless it has authority to allot sufficient shares and the company has sufficient reserves or funds that may be capitalised to give effect to the election after the basis of allotment is determined;

 

32.12.5the Board may exclude from any offer any holders of Ordinary Shares where the Board believes that the making of the offer to them would or might involve the contravention of the laws of any territory or that for any other reason the offer should not be made to them;

 

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32.12.6the dividends, or that part of the dividend in respect of which a right of election has been offered, will not be payable on Ordinary Shares other which an election has been made (Elected Ordinary Shares) and, instead, additional Ordinary Shares will be allotted to the holders of the Elected Ordinary Shares on the basis of the allotment calculated as stated. For such purpose, the Board will capitalise, out of any amount for the time being standing to the credit of any reserve or fund, including the profit and loss account, whether or not it is available for distribution as the Board may determine, a sum equal to the aggregate nominal amount of the additional Ordinary Shares to be allotted on that basis and apply it in paying up in full the appropriate number of Ordinary Shares for allotment and distribution to the holders of the Elected Ordinary Shares on that basis; and

 

32.12.7the additional Ordinary Shares when allotted will rank equally in all respects with the fully paid Ordinary Shares then in issue except that they will not be entitled to participate in the relevant dividend.

 

32.13A general meeting declaring a dividend may, upon the recommendation of the Board, direct payment of such dividend wholly or in part by the distribution of specific assets, and in particular of paid up shares or debentures of the company or any other company, and the Board must give effect to such resolution. Where any difficulty arises in regard to the distribution, they may settle it as they think expedient and, in particular but without limitation, may issue fractional certificates and may fix the value for distribution of such specific assets or any part of them, and may determine that cash payments will be made to any members upon the basis of the value so fixed, in order to adjust the rights of members. They may vest any specific assets in trustees upon trust for the persons entitled to the dividend as may seem expedient to the Board, and generally may make such arrangements for the allotment, acceptance and sale of such specific assets or fractional certificates, or any part of them, and otherwise as they think fit.

 

33.Reserves

 

33.1Subject to the provisions of the Statutes, the Board may before recommending any dividend, whether preferential or otherwise, carry to reserve out of the profits of the company, including any premiums received upon the issue of debentures or other securities of the company, such sums as they think proper as a reserve or reserves.

 

33.2All sums standing to reserve may be applied from time to time at the discretion of the Board for meeting depreciation or contingencies or for special dividends or bonuses or for equalising dividends or for repairing, improving or maintaining any of the property of the company or for such other purposes as the Board may decide are conducive to the objects of the company or any of them. Pending their application such sums may either be employed in the business of the company or be invested in such investments as the Board think fit.

 

 - 44 - 

 

 

33.3The Board may divide the reserve into such special funds as they think fit, and may consolidate into one fund any special funds or any parts of any special funds into which the reserve has been divided, as they think fit. Any sum which the Board may carry to reserve out of the unrealised profits of the company will not be mixed with any reserve to which profits available for distribution have been carried. The Board may also without placing them to reserve carry forward any profits which they may think it not prudent to divide.

 

34.Capitalisation of profits

 

34.1Subject as set out in regulations 34.2 and 34.3 the Board may with the authority of an ordinary resolution of the company:

 

34.1.1resolve to capitalise any undivided profits (including profits standing to the credit of any reserve) of the company, whether or not they are available for distribution, or any sum standing to the credit of the company’s share premium account, redenomination reserve or capital redemption reserve;

 

34.1.2appropriate the profits or sum resolved to be capitalised to the members in proportion to the nominal amount of Ordinary Shares, whether or not fully paid, held by them respectively, and apply such profits or sum on their behalf, either in or towards paying up the amounts, if any, for the time being unpaid on any shares held by such members respectively, or in paying up in full shares or debentures of the company of a nominal amount equal to such profits or sum, and allot and distribute such shares or debentures credited as fully paid up, to and amongst such members, or as they may direct, in due proportion, or partly in one way and partly in the other;

 

34.1.3resolve that any shares allotted under this regulation to any member in respect of a holding by him of any partly paid Ordinary Shares will, so long as such Ordinary Shares remain partly paid, rank for dividends only to the extent that such partly paid Ordinary Shares rank for dividend;

 

34.1.4make such provisions by the issue of fractional certificates or by payment in cash or otherwise as the Board think fit for the case of shares or debentures becoming distributable under this regulation in fractions;

 

34.1.5authorise any person to enter on behalf of all the members concerned into an agreement with the company providing for the allotment to them respectively, credited as fully paid up, of any shares or debentures to which they may be entitled upon such capitalisation and any agreement made under such authority being effective and binding on all such members; and

 

 - 45 - 

 

 

34.1.6generally do all acts and things required to give effect to such resolution.

 

34.2The share premium account, redenomination reserve and capital redemption reserve and any such profits which are not available for distribution may, for the purposes of regulation 34.1, only be applied in the paying up of unissued shares to be allotted to members credited as fully paid.

 

34.3In the case where any sum is applied in paying amounts for the time being unpaid on any shares of the company or in paying up in full debentures of the company, the amount of the net assets of the company at that time must be not less than the aggregate of the called up share capital of the company and its undistributable reserves and must not be reduced below that aggregate by the payment of those amounts as shown in the latest audited accounts of the company, or such other accounts as may be relevant.

 

35.Accounts

 

35.1The Board must ensure that proper accounting records are kept in accordance with the Statutes.

 

35.2The accounting records must be kept at the office, or, subject to the provisions of the Statutes, at such other place as the Board think fit, and must always be open to inspection by the officers of the company. No member, other than a Director, has any right of inspecting any account or book or document of the company, except as conferred by the Statutes or authorised by the Board or by the company in general meetings.

 

35.3The Board must from time to time, in accordance with the provisions of the Statutes, ensure that there are prepared and laid before the company in general meeting such profit and loss accounts balance sheets, group accounts, if any, and reports as are specified in the Statutes.

 

35.4Subject to the Statutes, a copy of every Directors’ report and Auditors’ report accompanied by the company’s annual accounts and every other document required by law to be attached to them or a summary financial statement derived from the company’s annual accounts, prepared in accordance with the Statutes, must, not less than 21 clear days before the date of the meeting at which copies of those documents are to be laid, be sent to every member (whether or not entitled to receive notices of general meetings) and to every holder of debentures of the company (whether nor not entitled to receive notices of general meetings) and to the Auditors and to every other person who is entitled to receive notices of general meetings from the company. This regulation 35.4 does not require such documents to be sent to any member or holder of debentures of whose address the company is not aware nor to more than one of the joint holders of any shares or debentures.

 

 - 46 - 

 

 

35.5The accidental omission to send any document required to be sent to any person under regulation 35.4 or the non-receipt of any document by any person entitled to receive it does not invalidate any such document or the proceedings at the general meeting.

 

35.6The required number of such documents must, at the same time, be filed or published as required by the Listing Rules.

 

36.Record dates

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of these articles, the company or the Board may fix any date as the record date for any dividend, distribution, allotment or issue and such record date may be on or at any time before any date on which such dividend, distribution, allotment or issue is paid or made and on or at any time before or after any date on which such dividend, distribution, allotment or issue is declared.

 

37.Audit

 

37.1Auditors must be appointed and their duties, powers, rights and remuneration regulated in accordance with the provisions of CA 2006.

 

37.2Once at least in every year the accounts of the company must be examined and the correctness of the balance sheet, profit and loss account and group accounts, if any, ascertained by the Auditors.

 

38.Notices

 

38.1A notice or other document or information to be sent to or by any person under these articles (other than a notice calling a meeting of the Board or of a committee of the Board) must be in writing or sent using electronic communication to an electronic address notified for that purpose to the person sending the notice or other document or information.

 

38.2A notice or other document or information may be delivered or sent to a member or another person by the company personally or by letter. Any letter must be sent by first class post and addressed to such member or other person at the postal address in the Register (or at another address notified for the purpose) or left at that address in any envelope addressed to that member or other person. Electronic communications may be used for sending a notice or other document or information to a member or other person where that member or other person has agreed, or is deemed to have agreed, to the use of electronic communication and has specified an electronic address for this purpose. A notice or other document or information may be sent to a member or other person by the company by placing it on a website and sending the member or other person concerned notification of the availability of the notice, document or information on the website, where the member or other person has agreed, or is deemed, as provided by the Statutes, to have agreed to having such notices, documents or information sent to him in that manner.

 

 - 47 - 

 

 

38.3Without prejudice to regulation 38.2, the company may send or supply a notice or any other document or information that is required or authorised to be sent or supplied to a member or any other person by the company by any provision of the Statutes, or pursuant to these articles or to any other rule or regulation to which the company may be subject, in electronic form or by making it available on a website, and the provisions of schedule 5 CA 2006 will apply whether or not any such notice, document or information is required or authorised by the Statutes to be sent or supplied.

 

38.4Any notice or other document or information to be sent to a member or other person may be sent by reference to the Register or the company’s other records as they stand at any time within the period of 15 days before the notice or other document or information is sent and no change in the Register or the company’s other records after that time will invalidate the sending of the notice or other document or information.

 

38.5In the case of joint holders of a share, a notice or other document or information will be sent to whichever of them is named first in the Register and a notice or other document or information sent in this way is sufficiently sent to all the joint holders.

 

38.6If, on three consecutive occasions, a notice or other document or information sent to a member or other person is returned undelivered, such member or other person will not thereafter be entitled to receive notices or other documents or information from the company until he has communicated with the company and supplied in writing to it a new address for the service of notices or other documents or information or has informed the company, in such manner as may be specified by the company, of an electronic address for the service of notices or other documents or information by electronic communication. For these purposes, a notice or other document or information sent by post will be treated as returned undelivered if it is sent back to the company or its agents and a notice or other document or information sent by electronic communication will be treated as returned undelivered if the company or its agents receive notification that it was not delivered to the address to which it was sent.

 

38.7Any notice or other document or information sent addressed to a member or another person at his registered address (or another address or an electronic address notified for the purpose) is deemed to be served, if personally delivered, at the time of delivery or, if sent by first class post, 48 hours after the letter is posted or, in the case of a notice or other document or information contained in an electronic communication, on the same day it is sent. A notice or other document or information left at such an address is deemed to be received on the day it is left. In proving service it is sufficient to establish that the letter was properly addressed and, if sent by post, prepaid or stamped and posted. Proof that a notice or other document or information contained in an electronic communication was sent in accordance with guidance issued by the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators will be conclusive evidence that the notice or other document or information was received.

 

 - 48 - 

 

 

38.8Any member present, either personally or by proxy, at any general meeting of the company or of the holders of any class of shares in the company will for all purposes be deemed to have received due notice of such meeting and, where requisite, of the purposes for which such meeting was called.

 

38.9A person who becomes entitled by transmission, transfer or otherwise to a share is bound by a notice in respect of that share (other than a notice served by the company under a Section 793 Notice (“Notice by company requiring information about interests in its shares”)) which, before his name is entered in the Register, has been properly sent to a person from whom he derives his title.

 

38.10Where a person is entitled by transmission to a share, the company may send a notice or other document or information to that person as if he were the holder of a share by addressing it to him or to the representative of the deceased or trustee of the bankrupt member at an address or electronic address supplied for that purpose by the person claiming or be entitled by transmission. Until an address has been supplied, a notice or other document or information may be sent in any manner in which it might have been sent if the death or bankruptcy or other event had not occurred. The giving of notice in accordance with this regulation 38.10 is sufficient notice to all other persons interested in the share.

 

38.11If, by reason of the suspension or curtailment of postal or electronic communication services in the country where the head office of the company is located, the company is unable effectively to convene a general meeting by notice sent through the post or by electronic communication, or to send any other document or information by post or by electronic communication.

 

38.12The Board may at any time and in its sole discretion choose (a) to serve, send or supply notices, documents or other information in hard copy form alone to some or all members and (b) except as required by law, not to serve, send or supply a notice, document or other information to a particular member or other person otherwise entitled to receive it where the Board believes this necessary or appropriate to deal with legal, regulatory or practical problems in, or under the laws of, any territory.

 

38.13Any requirement to put a document on display or make it available for inspection by any persons may be satisfied by making it available to the persons entitled to inspect it for the required period on a website or by other electronic means.

 

39.Untraced shareholders

 

39.1The company is entitled to sell at the best price reasonably obtainable any share of a member or any share to which a person is entitled by transmission if:

 

 - 49 - 

 

 

39.1.1during a period of 12 years the company has paid at least three dividends, whether interim or final in respect of the share in question and all cheques and warrants in respect of any such dividend sent in the manner authorised by these articles by the company have been returned undelivered or remained uncashed and no communication has been received by the company from the member or the person entitled by transmission;

 

39.1.2the company has, after the expiry of the period of 12 years, used such efforts as it considers reasonable to trace the relevant person and sent notice of its intention to sell the shares to the last known address of that person at which service of notices may be effected under these articles;

 

39.1.3the company has not, during the further period of three months after the date of the advertisement and prior to the exercise of the power of sale, received any communication from the member or person entitled by transmission; and

 

39.1.4the company has first complied with any applicable requirements (including in respect of giving notice or other information) of the Listing Rules.

 

39.2To give effect to any such sale, the Board may, in relation to certificates shares, appoint any person to execute as transferor an instrument of transfer of such share and such instrument of transfer will be as effective as if it had been executed by the registered holder of or person entitled by the transmission to such share. In relation to uncertificated shares the Board may, in accordance with the Statutes, issue a written notification to the Operator of the relevant system requiring conversion of the shares into certificated form and exercise any of the company’s powers to effect the transfer of the shares to, or in accordance with the directions of, the purchaser and the exercise of such powers will be as effective as if exercised by the registered holder of, or person entitled by shares the transferee is not bound to see to the application of the purchase money and the title of the transferee is not affected by any irregularity or invalidity in the proceedings relating to the sale.

 

39.3The company must account to the member or other person entitled to such share for the net proceeds of such sale by crediting all money in respect of those proceeds to a separate account, which are a permanent debt of the company, and the company will be deemed to be a debtor and not a trustee in respect of it for such member or other person. Money carried to such separate account may either be employed in the business of the company or invested in such investments, other than shares of the company or its holding company if any, as the Board may from time to time think fit.

 

 - 50 - 

 

 

40.Destruction of documents

 

40.1The company may destroy:

 

40.1.1any share certificate which has been cancelled at any time after the expiry of one year from the date of such cancellation;

 

40.1.2any dividend mandate or any variation or cancellation of it or any notification of change of name or address (including an electronic address) at any time after the expiry of two years from the date such mandate, variation, cancellation or notification was recorded by the company; or

 

40.1.3any other document on the basis of which any entry in the Register is made at any time after the expiry of six years from the date an entry in the Register was first made in respect of it.

 

40.2It will be conclusively presumed in favour of the company that every share certificate so destroyed was a valid certificate duly and properly cancelled, that every instrument of transfer so destroyed was a valid and effective instrument duly and properly registered and that every other document destroyed under regulation 40.1 was a valid and effective document, in accordance with its recorded particulars in the books or records of the company.

 

40.3The provisions of regulation 40.2 apply only to the destruction of a document in good faith and without express notice to the company that the preservation of such document was relevant to a claim.

 

40.4Nothing contained in regulation 40.1 is construed as imposing upon the company any liability in respect of the destruction of any such document earlier than as set out in regulation 40.1 or in any case where the conditions of regulation 40.3 are not fulfilled.

 

40.5References in this regulation 40 to the destruction of any document include references to its disposal in any manner.

 

41.Winding up

 

41.1If the company is wound up, whether the liquidation is voluntary, under supervision or by the court, the liquidator may, with the authority of a special resolution, divide among the members (excluding any holding shares or treasury shares) in specie the whole or part of the assets of the company, whether or not the assets consist of property of one kind or of different kinds. For those purposes the liquidator may set such value as he deems fair upon any one or more class or classes of property and may determine how such division will be effected as between the members or different classes of members. If any such division is carried out otherwise than in accordance with the existing rights of the members, every member will have the same right of dissent and other ancillary rights as if such resolution were a special resolution passed in accordance with section 110, Insolvency Act 1986. The liquidator may, with the same authority, vest any part of the assets in trustees upon such trusts for the benefit of members as the liquidator, with the same authority, thinks fit and the liquidation of the company may be closed and the company dissolved. No member will be compelled to accept any shares in respect of which there is a liability.

 

 - 51 - 

 

 

41.2The Board must exercise the power conferred upon them by section 247, CA 2006 only with the prior sanction of a special resolution. If at any time the capital of the company is divided into different classes of shares, subject to the terms of issue of the relevant shares the exercise of such power is deemed to be a variation of the rights attached to each class of shares and, accordingly, requires the prior consent in writing of the holders of three fourths in nominal value of the issued shares of each class (excluding treasury shares) or the prior sanction of a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of the shares of each class (excluding any shares of a class held as treasury shares) convened and held in accordance with the provisions of regulation 3.9.

 

42.Indemnity

 

Subject to the provisions of the Statutes, every Director or other officer (except the Auditors) of the company will be indemnified out of the assets of the company, against all costs, charges, expenses, losses and liabilities which he may sustain or incur in connection with the execution of his duties and powers or otherwise in relation to them. Without prejudice to the generality of the previous sentence, any such person will be indemnified out of the assets of the company against any liability incurred by him in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, in relation to anything done or omitted or alleged to have been done or omitted by him as an officer of the company and in which judgment is given in his favour (or the proceedings are otherwise disposed of without any finding or admission of any breach of duty by him) or in which he is acquitted or in connection with any application in which relief is granted to him by the court from liability for negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the affairs of the company. Subject to the Statutes, the company may purchase and maintain for the company and for any Director, Secretary or other officer of the company insurance against any liability which by virtue of any rule of law would otherwise attach to him in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he may be liable for or guilty in relation to the company.

 

43.Indemnity against claims in respect of shares

 

43.1The provisions of regulation 43.2 will apply whenever any law for the time being of any country, state or place imposes or purports to impose any immediate or future or possible liability on the company to make any payment, or empowers any government or taxing authority or government official to require the company to make any payment, in respect of any shares held either jointly or solely by a member or in respect of any dividends or other money due or payable or accruing due or which may become due or payable to such members by the company or in respect of any such shares or for or on account or in respect of any member in consequence of:

 

 - 52 - 

 

 

43.1.1the death or bankruptcy of such member;

 

43.1.2the non-payment of any income tax or other tax by such member; or

 

43.1.3the non-payment of any inheritance tax or any estate, probate, succession, death, stamp or other duty by the executors or administrators or other legal personal representatives of such member or by or out of his estate.

 

43.2In the circumstances described in regulation 43.1 the company:

 

43.2.1will be fully indemnified by such member or his executors or administrators or his other legal personal representatives from all liability arising by virtue of such law; and

 

43.2.2may recover as a debt due from such member or his executors or administrators or his other legal personal representatives wherever constituted or residing, any money paid by the company under or in consequence of any such law, together with interest on it at the rate of 15 per cent. per annum from the date of payment to the date of repayment.

 

43.3Nothing contained in regulations 43.1 and 43.2 prejudices or affects any right or remedy which any law may confer or purport to confer on the company and, as between the company and every such member as is referred to in regulation 43.1, his executors, administrators or other legal personal representatives, and estate wherever constituted or situated, any right or remedy which such law confers or purports to confer on the company will be enforceable by the company.

 

44.Derivative actions

 

The rights provided under CA 2006 as are provided to shareholders in respect of derivative suits, shall apply to the company and to the rights of the members of the company to bring suits or claims against the company.

 

45.Deferred shares

 

45.1Any deferred shares of the company from time to time in issue will have the rights and be subject to the limitations and restrictions set out in this regulation 45 as well as such further rights, limitations and restrictions (not being inconsistent with those set out in this regulation) as may be determined by the Board before their allotment. The deferred shares will rank pari passu with each other.

 

45.2On a return of capital on a winding up, there shall be paid to the holders of the deferred shares only an amount equal to the amount credited as paid up on them, which will be paid only after the holders of all Ordinary Shares then in issue have received in cash or specie USD10,000,000 for every USD1 credited as paid up on the Ordinary Shares. The holders of the deferred shares will not be entitled to receive any other return of capital or any dividend or distribution declared, made or paid and will have no further right of participation in the assets of the company.

 

 - 53 - 

 

 

45.3Except as required by law, the holders of the deferred shares will not be entitled to receive notice of, nor attend or speak or vote at, any general meeting of the company. The company will have the irrevocable authority to appoint a single holder or any other person on behalf of all holders of deferred shares to exercise any vote to which holders of deferred shares may be entitled in any circumstances or for any other matter connected to the deferred shares.

 

45.4No deferred share will be transferable at any time other than pursuant to regulation 45.6 or with the prior written consent of the directors. The directors will have the right to refuse to register any transfer undertaken without their prior written consent. A holder will not be entitled to receive a share certificate (or recognition in a CREST account) in respect of any deferred share, except as required by law.

 

45.5The rights attached to the deferred shares will not be deemed to be varied or abrogated by: the creation, allotment or issue of any new shares ranking in priority to, pari passu with or subsequent to them; any amendment or variation of the rights of any other class of shares of the company; the company reducing its share capital; or the surrender, purchase or cancellation of any share, whether or not a deferred share.

 

45.6The company has the irrevocable authority to authorize and instruct any person appointed for the purpose by the company as agent for all the holders of deferred shares to execute on behalf of those holders a transfer of the deferred shares and/or an agreement to transfer and/or sell them to the company or any other person and such other documents as the company may consider necessary or desirable in connection with such a transfer and/or purchase, in each case without obtaining the sanction of any of those holders, and for no consideration or such consideration as the directors may determine (which may be an aggregate payment of USD0.01 in respect of the aggregate number of deferred shares being transferred or purchased by all holders). The company has the irrevocable authority to cancel any deferred share in accordance with the Statutes without making any payment to the holder.

 

 

 - 54 - 

 

 

Exhibit 4.7

 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of                  , 20

 

[                                                            ]

Trustee

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

 

 

   

 

 

Table of Contents

 

   

Page

     
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
     
Section 1.1 Definitions 1
Section 1.2 Other Definitions 4
Section 1.3 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 5
Section 1.4 Rules of Construction 5
     
ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES 6
     
Section 2.1 Issuable in Series 6
Section 2.2 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities 6
Section 2.3 Denominations; Provision for Payment 8
Section 2.4 Execution and Authentication 8
Section 2.5 Registrar and Paying Agent 9
Section 2.6 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 10
Section 2.7 Securityholder Lists 10
Section 2.8 Transfer and Exchange 10
Section 2.9 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 11
Section 2.10 Outstanding Securities 12
Section 2.11 Treasury Securities 12
Section 2.12 Temporary Securities 12
Section 2.13 Cancellation 13
Section 2.14 Defaulted Interest 13
Section 2.15 Global Securities 13
Section 2.16 CUSIP Numbers 14
     
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION 15
     
Section 3.1 Notice to Trustee 15
Section 3.2 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed 15
Section 3.3 Notice of Redemption 15
Section 3.4 Effect of Notice of Redemption 16
Section 3.5 Deposit of Redemption Price 17
Section 3.6 Securities Redeemed in Part 17
     
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 17
     
Section 4.1 Payment of Principal and Interest 17
Section 4.2 Reports by Company 17
Section 4.3 Compliance Certificate 18
Section 4.4 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws 18
Section 4.5 Corporate Existence 18
     
 -i 

 

 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS 19
     
Section 5.1 Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets 19
Section 5.2 Successor Person Substituted 19
     
ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 19
     
Section 6.1 Events of Default 19
Section 6.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 21
Section 6.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 21
Section 6.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 22
Section 6.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 23
Section 6.6 Application of Money Collected 23
Section 6.7 Limitation on Suits 23
Section 6.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest 24
Section 6.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies 24
Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative 24
Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver 25
Section 6.12 Control by Holders 25
Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults 25
Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs 26
     
ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE 26
     
Section 7.1 Duties of Trustee 26
Section 7.2 Rights of Trustee 27
Section 7.3 Individual Rights of Trustee 29
Section 7.4 Trustee’s Disclaimer 29
Section 7.5 Notice of Defaults 29
Section 7.6 Reports by Trustee to Holders 29
Section 7.7 Compensation and Indemnity 29
Section 7.8 Replacement of Trustee 30
Section 7.9 Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc 31
Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification 31
Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company 31
     
ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 32
     
Section 8.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 32
Section 8.2 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification 33
Section 8.3 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series 33
Section 8.4 Covenant Defeasance 35
Section 8.5 Repayment to Company 36
Section 8.6 Reinstatement 36

 

 -ii 

 

 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    page
     
ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 36
     
Section 9.1 Without Consent of Holders 36
Section 9.2 With Consent of Holders 37
Section 9.3 Limitations 38
Section 9.4 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act 38
Section 9.5 Revocation and Effect of Consents 38
Section 9.6 Notation on or Exchange of Securities 39
Section 9.7 Trustee Protected 39
     
ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS 39
     
Section 10.1 Trust Indenture Act Controls 39
Section 10.2 Notices 39
Section 10.3 Communication by Holders with Other Holders 40
Section 10.4 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 40
Section 10.5 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 41
Section 10.6 Rules by Trustee and Agents 41
Section 10.7 Legal Holidays 41
Section 10.8 No Recourse Against Others 41
Section 10.9 Counterparts 42
Section 10.10 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver 42
Section 10.11 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 42
Section 10.12 Successors 42
Section 10.13 Severability 42
Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc 42
Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency 43
Section 10.16 Judgment Currency 43
Section 10.17 Force Majeure 44
     
ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS 44
     
Section 11.1 Applicability of Article 44
Section 11.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 44
Section 11.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 45

 

 -iii 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Indenture

dated as of ____________, 20

 

§ 310(a)(1) 7.10
(a)(2) 7.10
(a)(3) Not Applicable
(a)(4) Not Applicable
(a)(5) 7.10
(b) 7.10
§ 311(a) 7.11
(b) 7.11
§ 312(a) 2.7
(b) 10.3
(c) 10.3
§ 313(a) 7.6
(b)(1) 7.6
(b)(2) 7.6
(c)(1) 7.6
(d) 7.6
§ 314(a) 4.2, 10.5
(b) Not Applicable
(c)(1) 10.4
(c)(2) 10.4
(c)(3) Not Applicable
(d) Not Applicable
(e) 10.5
(f) Not Applicable
§ 315(a) 7.1
(b) 7.5
(c) 7.1
(d) 7.1
(e) 6.14
§ 316(a) 2.11
(a)(1)(A) 6.12
(a)(1)(B) 6.13
(b) 6.8
§ 317(a)(1) 6.3
(a)(2) 6.4
(b) 2.6
§ 318(a) 10.1

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

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Indenture dated as of __________, 20__, between AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC, a company organized under the laws of England and Wales (“Company”), and _______________, as trustee (“Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE I
DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.1         Definitions.

 

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certification and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or any day, including a legal holiday, on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment).

 

Capital Stock” of any person means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of the equity of such person.

 

Certificated Securities” means definitive Securities in registered non-global certificated form.

 

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor, which duly assumes the obligations under this Indenture, replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.

 

   

 

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at __________________,; Attention: _______________, or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company, or the corporate trust office of any successor Trustee at which this Indenture shall be administered (or such other address as a successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders of the Company).

 

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in The United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

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Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered on the books of the Registrar.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” means, with respect to any Security, any interest on such Security, and with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, interest payable after Maturity.

 

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the President, any Senior Vice President or Vice President, the Treasurer, Assistant Treasurer, Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer (or any person designated in writing by an Officer of the Company as authorized to execute and deliver Officer’s Certificates) and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. Opinions of Counsel required to be delivered under this Indenture may have qualifications customary for opinions of the type required.

 

person” means any individual, corporation, company, voluntary association, partnership, trust, joint venture, limited liability company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency, instrumentality or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having direct responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

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Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or other business entity of which a majority of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock or other interests having the power to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person, or a combination thereof.

 

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

United States” or “U.S.” means The United States of America (including the states thereof and the District of Columbia), its territories and possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction.

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

Section 1.2         Other Definitions.

 

TERM

DEFINED IN SECTION
Bankruptcy Law 6.1
Custodian 6.1
Event of Default 6.1
Judgment Currency 10.16
Legal Holiday 10.7
mandatory sinking fund payment 11.1
optional sinking fund payment 11.1
Paying Agent 2.5
Registrar 2.5
Required Currency 10.16
successor person 5.1
   

 

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Section 1.3         Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.4         Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a)       a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(b)       an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

(c)       “or” is not exclusive;

 

(d)       words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(e)       provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

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ARTICLE II
THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.1         Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the terms of such Series. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture establishing the terms thereof may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

Section 2.2         Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

 

2.2.1      the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) of the Series;

 

2.2.2      the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

2.2.3      any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.8, 2.9, 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6);

 

2.2.4      the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

2.2.5      the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

2.2.6      the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

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2.2.7       if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series must be redeemed or may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

2.2.8       the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

2.2.9       the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

2.2.10     if other than denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

2.2.11     the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

 

2.2.12     if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.13     the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

2.2.14     the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

2.2.15     if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

2.2.16     the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

2.2.17     the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

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2.2.18     any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.19     any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

2.2.20     any Depositaries, trustees, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

2.2.21     the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, the securities or other property into which the Securities will be convertible, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

2.2.22     whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees; and

 

2.2.23     any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series.

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

 

Section 2.3          Denominations; Provision for Payment.

 

The Securities of any Series shall be issuable, except as otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, as registered Securities in the denominations of one thousand Dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. Unless otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any Series, if any, thereon, shall by payable in Dollars at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to any Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of any Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.

 

Section 2.4          Execution and Authentication.

 

Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

 

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If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.9.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4.

 

The Trustee shall have the right, but not the obligation, to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith determines that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability.

 

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.5          Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”) and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar or Paying Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.

 

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The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

Section 2.6          Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

 

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Securities of that Series, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

Section 2.7          Securityholder Lists.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.8          Transfer and Exchange.

 

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

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Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

Section 2.9          Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (a) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (b) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of written notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section 2.9, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section 2.9 in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

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The provisions of this Section 2.9 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.10         Outstanding Securities.

 

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by the Registrar and those described in this Section 2.10 as not outstanding.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.9, it ceases to be outstanding unless the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

 

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

 

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Section 2.11         Treasury Securities.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in conclusively relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right to deliver any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver with respect to the Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

 

Section 2.12         Temporary Securities.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary Securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

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Section 2.13         Cancellation.

 

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent, if not the Trustee, shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement, conversion or cancellation and shall dispose of such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) in accordance with its customary procedures and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.14         Defaulted Interest.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it may pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least 10 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

Section 2.15         Global Securities.

 

2.15.1     Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

2.15.2     Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.8 of this Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.8 of this Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (a) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (b) the Company determines in its sole discretion not to have such Securities represented by one or more Global Securities and executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

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Except as provided in this Section 2.15.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

2.15.3     Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

 

2.15.4     Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under this Indenture.

 

2.15.5     Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof, which in the case of a Depositary therefor will be made in accordance with its applicable procedures.

 

2.15.6     Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of such Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Section 2.16         CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Trustee shall have no liability for any defect in the “CUSIP” numbers as they appear on any Security, notice or elsewhere. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

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ARTICLE III
REDEMPTION

 

Section 3.1          Notice to Trustee.

 

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice to the Trustee at least 45 days before the redemption date, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the Trustee.

 

Section 3.2          Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including selecting by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary; provided that the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of any Security shall be in an authorized denomination (which shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Security. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

Section 3.3          Notice of Redemption.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

 

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(a)         the redemption date;

 

(b)         the redemption price and the amount of accrued interest, if any, to be paid;

 

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(c)         the name and address of the Paying Agent and, if applicable, the conversion Agent;

 

(d)         for convertible Securities, the conversion price;

 

(e)         if any Global Security is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Global Security to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date upon surrender of such Global Security, the principal amount thereof will be decreased by the portion thereof redeemed pursuant thereto;

 

(f)         if any Certificated Security is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security to be redeemed, and that, after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Certificated Security in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Certificated Security;

 

(g)         that Securities of the Series (or portion thereof) called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(h)         that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date unless the Company defaults in the deposit of the redemption price;

 

(i)          the CUSIP number, if any, and state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in the SEC’s notice or printed on the Securities; and

 

(j)          any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least 15 days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

 

Section 3.4         Effect of Notice of Redemption.

 

Once notice of redemption is mailed as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date other than Securities or portions of Securities called for redemption which have been delivered by the Company to the Registrar for cancellation. The Paying Agent shall return to the Company any money not required for that purpose.

 

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Unless the Company shall default in the payment of Securities (and accrued interest) called for redemption, interest on such Securities shall cease to accrue after the redemption date. Convertible Securities called for redemption shall cease to be convertible after the close of business on the Business Day immediately preceding the redemption date, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such Securities on the redemption date, in which event the Securities shall remain convertible until paid (together with accrued interest).

 

Failure to give notice of redemption, or any defect in such notice to the Holder of any Security of a Series designated for redemption, in whole or in part, shall not affect the sufficiency of any notice of redemption with respect to the Holder of any other Security of such Series.

 

Section 3.5         Deposit of Redemption Price.

 

On or before 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.6         Securities Redeemed in Part.

 

Upon surrender of a Certificated Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Certificated Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered and concurrently cancel the surrendered Certificated Security.

 

ARTICLE IV
COVENANTS

 

Section 4.1         Payment of Principal and Interest.

 

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. Principal and interest shall be considered paid on the date due if the Paying Agent holds in accordance with this Indenture on that date money sufficient to pay all principal and interest then due and the Paying Agent is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders on such date pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

Section 4.2         Reports by Company.

 

(a)       As long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall file with the Trustee, and transmit to the Holders, such information, documents and other reports, and such summaries thereof, as may be required pursuant to TIA § 314(a). All reports, information and documents referred to in this Section 4.2 will be deemed to be filed with the Trustee and transmitted to the Holders at the time such reports, information or documents are publicly filed with the SEC via the SEC’s EDGAR filing system (or any successor system), it being understood that the Trustee shall have no responsibility whatsoever to determine if such filings have been made.

 

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(b)       Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and shall not constitute a representation or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of the reports, information and documents. The Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

 

Section 4.3         Compliance Certificate.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements provided for in Section 10.4) from its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officer with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to such Officer signing such certificate, that to his or her knowledge the Company is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which the Officer has knowledge). Such Officer’s Certificate need not include a reference to any non-compliance that has been fully cured prior to the date as of which such certificate speaks.

 

Section 4.4         Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

 

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

Section 4.5         Corporate Existence.

 

Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and rights (charter and statutory); provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

 

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ARTICLE V
SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.1         Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets.

 

The Company may not consolidat