As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 21, 2018

 

Registration No. 333-220052

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

PRE-EFFECTIVE

AMENDMENT NO. 1

TO

FORM F-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT  

UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

England and Wales 98-1034922
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(IRS. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

75/76 Wimpole Street

London W1G 9RT

United Kingdom
Telephone +44 20 8004 0270

(Address and telephone number of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Vcorp Services, LLC
25 Robert Pitt Drive, Suite 204
Monsey, New York 10952
888-528-2677  

(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)

 

 

 

Copies of all communications, including communications sent to agent for service, should be sent to:

 

Todd Finger, Esq.

Robert Cohen, Esq.

Gary Emmanuel, Esq.

McDermott Will & Emery LLP
340 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10173

Tel: (212) 547-5400

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

 

From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective as determined by market conditions

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, please check the following box.  x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

 

Emerging growth company  x

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ¨

 

 

 

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each class of 
securities to be registered
  Amount to be
registered (1)
    Proposed
maximum
offering price
per unit (2)
    Proposed
maximum
aggregate
offering
price (3)
    Amount of
registration fee
(4)
 
                         
Ordinary shares, £0.01 par value each (5)                            
Warrants                                
Subscription Rights                                
Debt Securities                                
Units                                
Total   $ 100,000,000             $ 100,000,000     $ 5,279 (6)(7)

 

(1)

There are being registered under this registration statement such indeterminate number of ordinary shares, warrants, subscription rights, debt securities, and units, as may be sold by the registrant from time to time, which collectively shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000 or, if any securities are issued for consideration denominated in a foreign currency, such amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price equivalent to a maximum of $100,000,000. The securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of ordinary shares as may be issued upon conversion, exercise or exchange of warrants or debt securities that provide for such conversion into, exercise for or exchange into ordinary shares. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the ordinary shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of ordinary shares as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends, or similar transactions.  If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering may be in such greater principal amount as shall result in a maximum aggregate offering price not to exceed $100,000,000 after the date hereof.

 

(2) Not specified as to each class of securities to be registered pursuant to General Instruction II.C. of Form F-3.
   
(3) An indeterminate aggregate amount of securities is being registered as may from time to time be sold at indeterminate prices.

 

(4) The registration fee has been calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act on the basis of the maximum aggregate offering price of the securities listed.

 

(5) Ordinary shares may be in the form of American Depositary Shares. American Depositary Shares issuable on deposit of the ordinary shares registered hereby have been registered under a separate registration statement on Form F-6 (File No. 333-185197). Each American Depositary Share represents the right to receive one hundred ordinary shares.
   
(6) As discussed below, pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) of the Securities Act, this registration statement includes a total of $57,600,000 aggregate offering price of unsold securities that were previously registered on a registration statement on Form F-3 (Registration No. 333-198107) and for which the registration fee was previously paid. Accordingly, the $5,279 registration fee shown above has been calculated based on the proposed maximum offering price of the additional $42,400,000 of securities registered on this registration statement.
   
(7) $2,897.50 previously paid.

  

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the SEC, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed.  We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.  This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state or jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED FEBRUARY 21, 2018

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

 

$100,000,000

 

Ordinary Shares

American Depositary Shares representing Ordinary Shares

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities

Units

 

We may offer, issue and sell from time to time up to US $100,000,000, or its equivalent in any other currency, currency units, or composite currency or currencies, of our ordinary shares, including in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, warrants to purchase ordinary shares, including in the form of ADSs, subscription rights, debt securities and a combination of such securities, separately or as units, in one or more offerings.  Each ADS represents 100 ordinary shares.  This prospectus provides a general description of offerings of these securities that we may undertake.

 

We refer to our ADSs, ordinary shares, warrants, subscription rights, debt securities, and units collectively as “securities” in this prospectus.

 

Each time we sell our securities pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide the specific terms of such offering in a supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can More Find Information,” before you make your investment decision.

 

We may, from time to time, offer to sell the securities, through public or private transactions, directly or through underwriters, agents or dealers, on or off The NASDAQ Capital Market, at prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices. If any underwriters, agents or dealers are involved in the sale of any of these securities, the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the names of the underwriter, agent or dealer and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts.

 

Our ADSs are listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “AKTX”. On February 20, 2018, the closing price of our ADSs on The NASDAQ Capital Market was $2.36 per ADS.

 

The aggregate market value of our outstanding voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates on February 20, 2018, as calculated in accordance with General Instruction I.B.5. of Form F-3, was approximately $34.5 million. Under the registration statement to which this prospectus supplement forms a part, we may not sell our securities in a primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of our public float in any 12-month period unless our public float rises to $75 million or more. We have not issued any securities pursuant to Instruction I.B.5. of Form F-3 during the 12 calendar month period that ends on and includes the date hereof.  

 

Investing in these securities involves a high degree of risk. Please carefully consider the risks discussed in this prospectus under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 6 and the “Risk Factors” in “Item 3: Key Information- Risk Factors” of our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any applicable prospectus supplement for a discussion of the factors you should consider carefully before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, nor any state or other foreign securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete.  Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. 

 

 

 

The date of this prospectus is February     , 2018

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

About this Prospectus 1
Our Business 2
Risk Factors 3
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements 4
Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable 5
Price Range of the ADSs 5
Use of Proceeds 6
Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges 6
Capitalization 6
Description of Ordinary Shares 7
Description of American Depositary Shares 23
Description of Warrants 29
Description of Subscription Rights 30
Description of Debt Securities 30
Description of Units 36
Taxation 37
Plan of Distribution 37
Experts 39
Legal Matters 39
Where You Can Find More Information 39
Incorporation By Reference 40
Indemnification for Securities Act Liabilities 40
Enforceability of Foreign Judgments 40
Expenses 41

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell our securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100,000,000. Each time we offer our securities, we will provide you with a supplement to this prospectus that will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities we offer. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. This prospectus, together with applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements, includes all material information relating to this offering. Please read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation By Reference.”

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, as well as information we have previously filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference, is accurate as of the date on the front of those documents only. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of our securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise designated, the terms “we”, “us”, “our”, “Akari”, “the Company” and “our Company” refer to Akari Therapeutics, PLC and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. References to “ordinary shares”, “ADSs”, “warrants” and “share capital” refer to the ordinary shares, ADSs, warrants and share capital, respectively, of Akari.

 

Market data and certain industry data and forecasts used throughout this prospectus were obtained from sources we believe to be reliable, including market research databases, publicly available information, reports of governmental agencies and industry publications and surveys. We have relied on certain data from third-party sources, including internal surveys, industry forecasts and market research, which we believe to be reliable based on our management’s knowledge of the industry. Forecasts are particularly likely to be inaccurate, especially over long periods of time. In addition, we do not necessarily know what assumptions regarding general economic growth were used in preparing the third-party forecasts we cite. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented in this prospectus, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate our expected results for any future periods.

 

Certain figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them.

 

We have obtained the statistical data, market data and other industry data and forecasts used in this prospectus and in our SEC filings incorporated herein by reference from publicly available information. We have not sought the consent of the sources to refer to the publicly available reports in this prospectus.

 

 1 

 

  

OUR BUSINESS

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus that we consider important. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our securities. You should read this summary together with the entire prospectus, any prospectus supplement, including the risks related to our business, our industry, investing in our ordinary shares and our location in the United Kingdom, that we describe under “Risk Factors” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included at the end of this prospectus before making an investment in our securities.

 

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing inhibitors of acute and chronic inflammation, specifically the complement system, the eicosanoid system and the bioamine system for the treatment of rare and orphan diseases. Each of these systems has scientifically well-supported causative roles in the diseases being targeted by us. We believe that blocking early mediators of inflammation will prevent initiation and continual amplification of the processes that cause certain diseases.

 

Ticks have undergone 300 million years of natural selection to produce inhibitors that bind tightly to key highly-conserved inflammatory mediators, are generally well tolerated in humans, and remain fully functional when a host is repeatedly exposed to the molecule. Our molecules are derived from these inhibitors.

 

Our lead product candidate, Coversin™, which is a second-generation complement inhibitor, acts on complement component-C5, preventing release of C5a and formation of C5b–9 (also known as the membrane attack complex, or MAC), and independently also inhibits leukotriene B4, or LTB4, activity, both elements that are co-located as part of the immune/inflammatory response. Coversin is a recombinant small protein (16,740 Da) derived from a protein originally discovered in the saliva of the Ornithodoros moubata tick, where it modulates the host immune system to allow the parasite to feed without alerting the host to its presence or provoking an immune response.

 

Coversin has received orphan drug status from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, and the European Medicines Agency, or the EMA, for paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, or PNH, and Guillain Barré Syndrome, or GBS. Orphan drug designation provides us with certain benefits and incentives, including a period of marketing exclusivity if regulatory approval of the drug is ultimately received for the designated indication. The receipt of orphan drug designation status does not change the regulatory requirements or process for obtaining marketing approval and the designation does not mean that marketing approval will be received. We intend to apply in the future for orphan drug designation in additional indications we deem appropriate. We have also received fast track designation for the investigation of Coversin for treatment of PNH in patients who have polymorphisms conferring eculizumab resistance.

 

Our initial clinical targets for Coversin are PNH and atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, or aHUS. We are also targeting patients with polymorphisms of the C5 molecule which interfere with correct binding of Soliris® (eculizumab), a first-generation C5 inhibitor currently approved for PNH and aHUS treatment, making these patients resistant to treatment with that drug. In addition to disease targets where complement dysregulation is the key driver, we are also targeting a range of inflammatory diseases where the inhibition of both C5 and LTB4 are implicated, including bullous pemphigoid (a blistering disease of the skin), and atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

 

Other compounds in our pipeline include engineered versions of Coversin that potentially decrease the frequency of administration, improve potency, or allow for specific tissue targeting, as well as new proteins targeting LBT4 alone, as well as bioamine inhibitors (for example, anti-histamines). In general, these inhibitors act as ligand binding compounds, which may provide additional benefit versus other modes of inhibition. For example, off target effects are less likely with ligand capture. One example of this benefit is seen with LTB4 inhibition through ligand capture. LTB4 acts to amplify the inflammatory signal by bringing and activating white blood cells to the area of inflammation. Compounds that have targeted the production of leukotrienes will inhibit both the production of pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory leukotrienes—often diminishing the potential benefit of the drug on the inflammatory system. Coversin has demonstrated that, by capturing LTB4, it is limited to disrupting the white blood cell activation and attraction aspects, without interfering with the anti-inflammatory benefits of other leukotrienes.  

 

Coversin is much smaller than typical antibodies currently used in therapeutic treatment. Coversin can be self-administered by subcutaneous injection, much like an insulin injection, which we believe will provide considerable benefits in terms of patient convenience. We believe that the subcutaneous formulation of Coversin may accelerate recruitment for our clinical trials, and, as an alternative to intravenous infusion, may accelerate patient uptake if Coversin is approved by regulatory authorities for commercial sale. Patient surveys contracted by us suggest that a majority of patients would prefer to self-inject daily than undergo intravenous infusions.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our legal and commercial name is Akari Therapeutics, PLC.

 

We were originally established as a private limited company under the laws of England and Wales on October 7, 2004 under the name Freshname No. 333 Limited. On January 19, 2005, we changed our name to Morria Biopharmaceuticals Limited and on February 3, 2005, we completed a reverse merger with Morria Biopharmaceuticals Inc., or Morria, a Delaware corporation, in which Morria became our wholly-owned subsidiary and we re-registered as a non-traded public limited company under the laws of England and Wales. Morria was dedicated to the discovery and development of novel, first-in-class, non-steroidal, synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. On March 22, 2011, we incorporated an Israeli subsidiary, Morria Biopharma Ltd. On June 25, 2013, we changed our name to Celsus Therapeutics PLC and on October 13, 2013 Morria was renamed Celsus Therapeutics Inc. On September 25, 2015, we further changed our name to “Akari Therapeutics, PLC”. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, Celsus Therapeutics Inc. and Morria Biopharma Ltd. do not conduct any operations.

 

 2 

 

 

On September 18, 2015, we completed an acquisition of the entire capital stock of Volution Immuno Pharmaceuticals SA, or Volution, a private Swiss company, from RPC Pharma Limited, or RPC, Volution’s sole shareholder, in exchange for our ordinary shares, in accordance with the terms of a Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 10, 2015.  In connection with the acquisition, our name was changed to Akari Therapeutics, PLC.

 

Our ADSs have been listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “AKTX” since September 21, 2015 and under the symbol “CLTX” from January 31, 2014 until September 18, 2015. Prior to that, our ADSs were quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol “CLSXD” from January 3, 2014 to January 30, 2014 and were quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol “CLSXY” from September 16, 2013 until January 2, 2014 and under the symbol “MRRBY” from February 19, 2013 to September 15, 2013. Effective January 3, 2014, our ratio of ADSs to ordinary shares changed from one ADS per each two ordinary shares to one ADS per each ten ordinary shares and, effective as of September 17, 2015, our ratio of ADSs to ordinary shares changed from one ADS per each ten ordinary shares to one ADS per each one hundred ordinary shares. Currently, each ADS represents by one hundred ordinary shares.

 

Our principal office is located at 75/76 Wimpole Street, London W1G 9RT, United Kingdom, and our telephone number is +44 20 8004 0270.

 

Our website address is www.akaritx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed from, our website does not form part of this prospectus.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, and therefore we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including   but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We have chosen to irrevocably opt out of the extended transition periods available under the JOBS Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards.

 

Implications of being a Foreign Private Issuer

 

On July 1, 2016, we became a foreign private issuer having previously lost this status at the end of 2014. As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to the same requirements that are imposed upon U.S. domestic issuers by the SEC. Under the Exchange Act, we are subject to reporting obligations that, in certain respects, are less detailed and less frequent than those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. For example, we will not be required to issue proxy statements that comply with the requirements applicable to U.S. domestic reporting companies. We will also have four months after the end of each fiscal year to file our annual reports with the SEC and will not be required to file current reports as frequently or promptly as U.S. domestic reporting companies. Furthermore, our officers, directors, and principal shareholders will be exempt from the requirements to report transactions in our equity securities and from the short-swing profit liability provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. These exemptions and leniencies, along with other corporate governance exemptions resulting from our ability to rely on home country rules, will reduce the frequency and scope of information and protections to which you may otherwise have been eligible in relation to a U.S. domestic reporting companies. If we were to lose our foreign private issuer status, the regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer will be significantly more than costs we incur as a foreign private issuer.

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and under Item 3.D. – “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F (the “Annual Report”), or any updates in our Reports on Form 6-K, together with all of the other information appearing in this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, in light of your particular investment objectives and financial circumstances. The risks so described are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. The discussion of risks includes or refers to forward-looking statements; you should read the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on such forward-looking statements discussed elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

 3 

 

  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, and the documents incorporated hereby reference, contain express or implied “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. Federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in our SEC filings incorporated herein by reference, including under Item 3.D. – “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report and any updates in our Reports on Form 6-K, which include statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

 

Words such as “may,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expects,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes” and words and terms of similar substance used in connection with any discussion of future operating or financial performance, identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements represent management’s present judgment regarding future events and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. These risks include, but are not limited to, risks and uncertainties regarding our pre-clinical and clinical studies, the results of such trials, as well as risks and uncertainties relating to litigation, government regulation and third-party reimbursement, economic conditions, markets, products, competition, intellectual property, services and prices, key employees, future capital needs, dependence on third parties and other factors. Please also see the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in the Annual Report and in our other SEC filings incorporated herein by reference.

 

In light of these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, the results and events discussed in the forward-looking statements contained in the Annual Report and in our other SEC filings incorporated herein by reference might not occur. We are not under any obligation, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

 

You should read this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.

 

 4 

 

 

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

We may sell from time to time pursuant to this prospectus (as may be detailed in prospectus supplements) an indeterminate number of securities as shall have a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000.  The actual per share price of the securities that we will offer pursuant hereto will depend on a number of factors that may be relevant as of the time of offer (see “Plan of Distribution” below).

 

PRICE RANGE OF OUR ADSs  

 

Our ADSs have been listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “AKTX” since September 21, 2015 and under the symbol “CLTX” from January 31, 2014 until September 18, 2015. Prior to that, the ADSs were quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol “CLSXD” from January 3, 2014 to January 30, 2014 and were quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol “CLSXY” from September 16, 2013 until January 2, 2014 and under the symbol “MRRBY” from February 19, 2013 to September 15, 2013. Effective January 3, 2014, our ratio of ADSs to ordinary shares changed from one ADS per each two ordinary Shares to one ADS per each ten ordinary shares and, effective as of September 17, 2015, our ratio of ADSs to ordinary shares changed from one ADS per each ten ordinary shares to one ADS per each 100 ordinary shares. Currently, each ADS represents 100 ordinary shares.

 

The following table sets forth the range of high and low sale prices for the ADSs for the periods indicated, as reported by The NASDAQ Capital Market or the OTCQB, as applicable. These prices do not include retail mark-ups, markdowns, or commissions but give effect to the change in the number of ordinary shares represented by each ADS to 100 ordinary shares per each ADS, implemented on September 17, 2015. Historical data in the table has been restated to take into account this change.

 

   

U.S. $ Price Per ADS

Share

 
    High     Low  
             
Annual:                
2017   $ 22.20     $ 3.18  
2016   $ 19.75     $ 6.71  
2015   $ 62.00     $ 4.00  
2014   $ 119.00     $ 45.80  
2013 (from February 19, 2013)   $ 25.00     $ 7.10  
                 
Quarterly:                
First Quarter 2018 (through February 21, 2018)   $ 4.50     $ 2.06  
Fourth Quarter 2017   $ 8.65     $ 3.90  
Third Quarter 2017   $ 11.95     $ 3.18  
Second Quarter 2017   $ 22.20     $ 4.11  
First Quarter 2017   $ 11.20     $ 6.22  
Fourth Quarter 2016   $ 9.75     $ 6.71  
Third Quarter 2016   $ 13.81     $ 7.93  
Second Quarter 2016   $ 19.75     $ 12.20  
First Quarter 2016   $ 19.28     $ 7.63  
                 
Most Recent Six Months:                
February 2018 (through February 20, 2018)   $ 2.86     $ 2.06  
January 2018   $ 4.50     $ 2.80  
December 2017   $ 5.49     $ 3.90  
November 2017   $ 5.08     $ 4.01  
October 2017   $ 8.65     $ 4.00  
September 2017   $ 11.95     $ 3.40  
August 2017   $ 4.61     $ 3.18  

 

 5 

 

 

On February 20, 2018, the last reported sales price of the ADSs on The NASDAQ Capital Market was $2.36 per ADS.

  

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures, regulatory affairs expenditures, clinical trial expenditures, acquisitions of new technologies and investments, and the repayment, refinancing, redemption or repurchase of future indebtedness or capital stock.

 

The intended application of proceeds from the sale of any particular offering of securities using this prospectus will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement relating to such offering. The precise amount and timing of the application of these proceeds will depend on our funding requirements and the availability and costs of other funds.

 

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

 

If we offer debt securities under this prospectus, then we will, if required at that time, provide a ratio of earnings to fixed charges and/or ratio of combined fixed charges and preference dividends to earnings, respectively, in the applicable prospectus supplement for such offering.

 

CAPITALIZATION

 

The following table sets forth our consolidated capitalization as determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP as of September 30, 2017.  

 

The amounts shown below are unaudited and represent management’s estimate. The information in this table should be read in conjunction with and is qualified by reference to the financial statements and notes thereto and other financial information incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

    As of
September 30,
2017
(in thousands)
 
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 20,974  
         
Long-term liabilities:     53  
         
Shareholders’ equity:        
Share capital     18,341  
Additional paid-in capital     93,208  
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income     (288 )
Accumulated deficit     (98,219 )
Total shareholders’ equity     13,042  
Total capitalization (long-term liabilities and equity)     13,095  

 

The number of ordinary shares indicated as issued and outstanding above is based on 1,177,693,393 ordinary shares outstanding as of September 30, 2017, and excludes:

 

  · 95,961,998 ordinary shares (equivalent to 959,619 ADSs) issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of September 30, 2017 at a weighted-average exercise price of $0.14 per ordinary share (equivalent to $14.00 per ADS);

 

  · 865,090 ordinary shares (equivalent to 8,650 ADSs) issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2017 at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.00 per ordinary share (equivalent to $200.00 per ADS); and

 

  · 45,180,422 additional ordinary shares (equivalent to 451,804 ADSs) available for future issuance as of September 30, 2017 under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

 

The following summarizes the material rights of holders of ordinary shares, as set out in our Articles of Association. The following summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Companies Act and to our Articles of Association, which is filed as an exhibit to our Form 6-K filed with the SEC on July 18, 2017, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

 

We were originally established as a private limited company under the laws of England and Wales on October 7, 2004 under the name Freshname No. 333 Limited. On January 19, 2005, we changed our name to Morria Biopharmaceuticals Limited and on February 3, 2005, we completed a reverse merger with Morria Biopharmaceuticals Inc., or Morria, a Delaware corporation, in which Morria became our wholly-owned subsidiary and we re-registered as a non-traded public limited company under the laws of England and Wales. Morria was dedicated to the discovery and development of novel, first-in-class, non-steroidal, synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. On March 22, 2011, we incorporated an Israeli subsidiary, Morria Biopharma Ltd. On June 25, 2013, we changed our name to Celsus Therapeutics PLC and on October 13, 2013 Morria was renamed Celsus Therapeutics Inc. On September 25, 2015, we further changed our name to “Akari Therapeutics, PLC”. As such our affairs are governed by our Articles of Association and the English law.

 

In the following summary, a “shareholder” is the person registered in our register of members as the holder of the relevant securities. For those ordinary shares that have been deposited in our ADS facility pursuant to our deposit agreement with Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas or its nominee is deemed the shareholder.

 

Share Capital

 

Our board of directors is generally authorized to issue up to 10,000,000,000 ordinary shares of £0.01 each until June 28, 2022, without seeking shareholder approval, subject to certain limitations. As of September 30, 2017, there were 1,177,693,393 ordinary shares outstanding, outstanding options and warrants to purchase 96,827,088 ordinary shares and 45,180,422 ordinary shares available for future issuance under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan. All of our existing issued ordinary shares are fully paid. Accordingly, no further capital may be required by us from the holders of such shares.

 

The rights and restrictions to which the ordinary shares will be subject are prescribed in our Articles of Association. Our Articles of Association permit our board of directors, with shareholder approval, to determine the terms of any preferred shares that we may issue. Our board of directors is authorized, having obtained the consent of the shareholders, to provide from time to time for the issuance of other classes or series of shares and to establish the characteristics of each class or series, including the number of shares, designations, relative voting rights, dividend rights, liquidation and other rights, redemption, repurchase or exchange rights and any other preferences and relative, participating, optional or other rights and limitations not inconsistent with applicable law.

 

English law does not recognize fractional shares held of record. Accordingly, our Articles of Association do not provide for the issuance of fractional ordinary shares, and our official English share register will not reflect any fractional shares.

 

We are not permitted under English law to hold our own ordinary shares unless they are repurchased by us and held in treasury.

 

During the last three years, we have issued an aggregate of 1,470,057,110 ordinary shares and options to purchase an aggregate of 135,260,698 ordinary shares.

 

Issuance of Options and Warrants

 

Our Articles of Association provide that, subject to any shareholder approval requirement under any laws, regulations or the rules of any stock exchange to which we are subject, our board of directors is authorized, from time to time, in its discretion, to grant such persons, for such periods and upon such terms as it deems advisable, options to purchase such number of shares of any class or classes or of any series of any class as our board of directors may deem advisable, and to cause warrants or other appropriate instruments evidencing such options to be issued. The Companies Act provides that directors may issue options or warrants without shareholder approval once authorized to do so by the Articles of Association or an ordinary resolution of shareholders. Our board of directors may issue shares upon exercise of options or warrants without shareholder approval or authorization, up to the relevant authorized share capital limit.

 

Dividends

 

Our Articles of Association provide that our board of directors may, subject to the applicable provisions of the Companies Act, from time to time, declare such dividend as may appear to the board of directors to be justified by the distributable profits of the company. Subject to the rights of the holders of shares with preferential or other special rights that may be authorized in the future, holders of ordinary shares are entitled to receive dividends according to their rights and interest in our distributable profits. Dividends, to the extent declared, are distributed according to the proportion of the nominal value paid up on account of the shares held at the date so appointed by the Company, without regard to the premium paid in excess of the nominal value, if any. A company may only distribute a dividend out of the company’s distributable profits, as defined under the Companies Act.

 

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Any dividend unclaimed after a period of twelve years from the date of declaration of such dividend shall be forfeited and shall revert to us. In addition, the payment by the board of directors of any unclaimed dividend, interest or other sum payable on or in respect of an ordinary share into a separate account shall not constitute us as a trustee in respect thereof.

 

Rights in a Liquidation

 

In the event of our liquidation, subject to applicable law, after satisfaction of liabilities to creditors, our assets will be distributed to the holders of ordinary shares in proportion to their respective holdings. This liquidation right may be affected by the grant of preferential dividends or distribution rights to the holders of a class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future.

 

Voting Rights

 

Holders of ordinary shares have one vote for each ordinary share held on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders. These voting rights may be affected by the grant of any special voting rights to the holders of a class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future.

 

The ordinary shares do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. As a result, holders of ordinary shares that represent more than 50% of the voting power at the general meeting of shareholders, in person or by proxy, have the power to elect all the directors whose positions are being filled at that meeting to the exclusion of the remaining shareholders. At every annual general meeting, one third of the directors who are subject to retirement by rotation, or as near to it as may be, will retire from office. In any two year period, a majority of the directors must stand for re-election or replacement. In the event that this majority has not been met and the number of directors eligible for retirement by rotation under the provision of our Articles of Association are not met, any further directors to retire are those who have been in office the longest since their last appointment or re-appointment, but as between persons who became or were last re-appointed directors on the same day, those to retire are determined by the Board of Directors at the recommendation of the Chairman. A retiring director is eligible for re-appointment, subject to the terms of our Articles of Association.

 

The actions necessary to change the rights of holders of the ordinary shares are as follows: the rights of the shareholders would need to be altered by way of a special resolution requiring 75% vote of the shareholders who are present and voting in person or by proxy. In order to change the rights of a separate class of shares, it will require such a vote by shareholders of that class of shares.

  

Preemptive Rights

 

There are no rights of pre-emption under our Articles of Association in respect of transfers of issued ordinary shares. In certain circumstances, our shareholders have preemptive rights with respect to new issuances of equity securities.  However our board of directors is generally authorized to allot equity securities for cash without triggering shareholder preemptive rights, provided that this power shall (i) be limited to the allotment of equity securities up to an aggregate nominal amount of £100,000,000; and (ii) expire (unless previously revoked or varied by us), on June 28, 2022.

 

Transfer of Shares

 

Fully paid ordinary shares are issued in registered form and may be transferred pursuant to our Articles of Association, unless such transfer is restricted or prohibited by another instrument and subject to applicable securities laws. The Articles of Association state that the directors of the Company may refuse to authorize a transfer of shares if the shares in question have not been paid in full and are therefore only partly paid.

 

Limitation on Owning Securities

 

Our Articles of Association do not restrict in any way the ownership or voting of ordinary shares by non-residents. If the company serves a demand on a person under section 793 to the Companies Act 2006, that person will be required to disclose any interest he has in the shares of the company.

 

Fiduciary Duties of Office Holders

 

The Companies Act imposes a duty of care and a duty of loyalty on all office holders of a company. The duty of care requires an office holder to act with the standard of skills with which a reasonable office holder in the same position would have acted under the same circumstances. The duty of care includes a duty to use reasonable means to obtain:

 

  · information regarding the business advisability of a given action brought for his or her approval or performed by him or her by virtue of his or her position; and

 

  · all other information of importance pertaining to the aforesaid actions.

 

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The duty of loyalty requires an office holder to act in good faith and for the benefit of the company and includes a duty to:

 

  · refrain from any act involving a conflict of interest between the fulfillment of his or her role in the company and the fulfillment of any other role or his or her personal affairs;

 

  · refrain from any activity that is competitive with the business of the company;

 

  · refrain from exploiting any business opportunity of the company with the aim of obtaining a personal gain for himself or herself or others; and

 

  · disclose to the company all information and provide it with all documents relating to the company’s affairs which the office holder has obtained due to his position in the company. 

 

Under equity, directors have owed fiduciary duties to their companies. Chapter 2 of Part 10 of the Companies Act 2006 (2006 Act) codifies certain of those duties. The relevant statutory duties under the 2006 Act are:

 

  · to act within powers;

 

  · to promote the success of the company;

 

  · to exercise independent judgment;

 

  · to avoid conflicts of interest;

 

  · not to accept benefits from third parties; and

 

  · to declare an interest in a proposed transaction or arrangement. 

 

In addition, the general principles of fiduciary duties as set out in common law continue in place in respect of Directors. The general four principles of fiduciary duties are:

 

  · No conflict: A must not place himself in a position where his own interests conflict with those of B or where there is a real possibility that this will happen. This is also known as conflict of duty or conflict of interest.

 

  · No-profit: A must not profit from his position at the expense of B. This is also known as misuse of property held in a fiduciary capacity.

 

  · Undivided loyalty: A fiduciary owes undivided loyalty to his beneficiary. Rather confusingly, this is sometimes called conflict of duty. A must not place himself in a position where his duty to another customer conflicts with his duty to B.

 

  · Confidentiality: A must use or disclose information obtained in confidence from B for the benefit only of B.

 

In the corporate realm, these have been refined as follows:

 

  · Duty to act in good faith in the best interests of the company: A director had to act at all times in good faith in what he considered was the best interests of the company.

 

  · Duty to act within the powers conferred by the company’s memorandum and articles of association and to exercise powers for proper purposes: A director could not cause the company to undertake activities outside that permitted by the company’s constitutional documents, or exercise his powers for any “improper purpose”.

 

  · Duty to avoid conflicting interests and duties: A director was obliged to avoid placing himself in a position where there was a conflict, or possible conflict, between the duties which he owed to the company and either his personal interests or other duties which he owed to a third party.

 

  · Duty not to make unauthorized profits: A director was under a duty to account for any personal profit made by virtue of his directorship unless the prof it was authorized by shareholder resolution or was in accordance with the company’s articles. The duty to account was strict, and did not depend on fraud or lack of good faith, or on the company suffering any loss.

 

Standard of Care

 

A director had to take such actions as would be taken by “a reasonably diligent person,” having both:

 

  · the general knowledge, skill and experience that may reasonably be expected of a person carrying out the same functions as are carried out by that director in relation to the company; and

 

  · the general knowledge, skill and experience that that director has.

 

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Disclosure of Personal Interests of an Officer Holder

 

The Companies Act requires that an office holder disclose to the Company any direct or indirect personal interest that he or she may have, and all related material information and documents known to him or her, in connection with any existing or proposed transaction by the company. The disclosure is required to be made promptly and in any event, no later than the board of directors meeting in which the transaction is first discussed.

 

Section 177 of the Companies Act requires any transaction in which a director has an interest to be declared, and not only those that are extraordinary transactions.

 

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interests

 

Except as provided in our Articles of Association, a director may not vote at a meeting of the board or of a committee of the board on any resolution concerning a matter:

 

  · in which he has (either alone or together with any person connected with him, as provided in the Companies Act) a material interest, other than an interest in shares or debentures or other securities of or in the company; and

 

  · subject to the Companies Act, which conflicts or may conflict with the interests of the Company.

 

A director is not counted in the quorum at a meeting in relation to any resolution on which he is debarred from voting.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a director is entitled to vote and be counted in the quorum in respect of any resolution concerning any of the following matters:

 

  · the giving of any security, guarantee or indemnity to a third party in respect of a debt or obligation of Celsus or any of our subsidiaries for which he himself has assumed responsibility in whole or in part under a guarantee or indemnity or by the giving of security;

 

  · any proposal concerning an offer of shares or debentures or other securities of or by Celsus or any of our subsidiaries for subscription or purchase in which offer he is or is to be interested as a participant as the holder of such shares, debentures or other securities or in its underwriting or sub-underwriting;

 

  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or other proposal concerning any other company in which he holds an interest not representing one per cent. or more of any class of the equity share capital (calculated exclusive of any shares of that class held as treasury shares) of such company, or of any third company through which his interest is derived, or of the voting rights available to members of the relevant company, any such interest being deemed for the purpose of this regulation to be a material interest in all circumstances;

 

  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or other proposal concerning the adoption, modification or operation of a superannuation fund or retirement, death or disability benefits scheme under which he may benefit and which has been approved by or is subject to and conditional upon approval by Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs;

 

  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or proposal concerning the adoption, modification or operation of any scheme for enabling employees, including full time executive directors of Celsus or any of our subsidiaries to acquire shares of Celsus or any arrangement for the benefit of employees of Celsus or any of our subsidiaries, which does not award him any privilege or benefit not awarded to the employees to whom such scheme relates; or

 

  · any contract, arrangement, transaction or proposal concerning insurance which Celsus proposes to maintain or purchase for the benefit of directors or for the benefit of persons including directors.

 

Article 26 of the Articles of Association states, that the board may authorize any matter which may otherwise involve a director breaching his duties under certain sections of the Companies Act 2006 to avoid conflicts of interest.

 

Any director (including the director which has the conflict) may propose that such conflicted director be authorized in relation to any matter which is the subject of such a conflict. The director with the conflict will not count towards the quorum at the meeting at which the conflict is considered and may not vote on any resolution authorizing the conflict. Where the board gives authority in relation to such a conflicts, the board may impose such terms on the relevant director as it deems appropriate.

 

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Directors’ and Officers’ Compensation

 

The Companies Act requires that a resolution approving provisions to appoint a director for a fixed period of more than two years, must not be passed unless a memorandum setting out the proposed contract incorporating the provision is made available to members: in the case of a resolution at a meeting, by being made available for inspection by members of the company both (i) at the company’s registered office for not less than 15 days ending with the date of the meeting, and (ii) at the meeting itself.

 

Directors’ Borrowing Powers

 

Our board of directors may, from time to time, in its discretion, cause us to borrow or secure the payment of any sum or sums of money for the purposes of our company.

 

Retirement of Directors

 

We do not have any age limitations for our directors, nor do we have mandatory retirement as a result of reaching a certain age.

 

Share Qualification of Directors

 

No shareholding qualification is required by a director.

 

Redemption Provisions

 

We may, subject to applicable law and to our Articles of Association, issue redeemable preference shares and redeem the same.

 

Capital Calls

 

Under our Articles of Association and the Companies Act, the liability of our shareholders is limited to the nominal value (i.e. par). The board of directors has the authority to make calls upon the shareholders in respect of any money unpaid on their shares and each shareholder shall pay to us as required by such notice the amount called on his shares. If a call remains unpaid after it has become due and payable, and the fourteen days’ notice provided by the board of directors has not been complied with, any share in respect of which such notice was given may be forfeited by a resolution of the board.

 

No Sinking Fund

 

Our ordinary shares do not have sinking fund provisions.

 

Modification of Rights

 

Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, if at any time our capital is divided into different classes of shares, the rights attached to any class may be varied or abrogated with the consent in writing of the holders of at least three-fourths in nominal value of that class or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of that class, but not otherwise. The quorum at any such meeting is two or more persons holding, or representing by proxy, at least one-third in nominal value of the issued shares in question.

 

Transfer Restrictions

 

Upon the listing of our shares on a Regulated Market (as defined by the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, the AIM market of the London Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange, the NYSE American, NASDAQ and similar securities exchanges), the Board may decide that up to 100% of each shareholders’ free shares (i.e. unrestricted shares under the applicable rules and regulations) shall be restricted to sale or transfer according to the following provisions, such shares as restricted by the Board being Restricted Shares: (i) during the first six months commencing on the date of the listing, no transfer of Restricted Shares is permitted; (ii) as of the seventh and eighth month following the date of the listing, such a shareholder may transfer shares that constitute up to 12.5% of his Restricted Shares per month; and (iii) as of the ninth month following the date of the listing, the remaining Restricted Shares are no longer considered restricted.

 

Shareholders’ Meetings and Resolutions

 

Pursuant to our Articles of Association, the quorum required for an ordinary meeting of shareholders consists of at least two shareholders present in person or by proxy, who hold shares conferring in the aggregate more than 15% of our voting power. If at any time the Company has only one shareholder, such shareholder, in person, by proxy or, if a corporation, by its representative, shall constitute a quorum. A meeting adjourned for lack of a quorum generally is adjourned to the same day in the following week at the same time and place or any time and place as the chairman of the board may designate. Furthermore, the board of the company may call a general meeting whenever they think fit. If the Board, in its absolute discretion, considers that it is impractical or unreasonable for any reason to hold a general meeting on the date or at the time or place specified in the notice calling the general meeting, it may postpone the general meeting to another date, time and/or place.

 

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Under the Companies Act, each shareholder of record must be provided at least 14 calendar days prior to the notice of any general shareholders’ meeting and 21 days prior to the notice of an annual general meeting. Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, our annual general meeting will be held at such time and place or places as our board may determine. Our board may call a general meeting whenever it thinks fit, and must do so when required under the Companies Act. General meetings must also be convened on such requisition, or in default may be convened by such requisitionists or by court order, as provided by the Companies Act.

 

Voting at any general meeting of shareholders is by a show of hands, unless a poll is demanded. A poll may be demanded by:

 

  · the chairman of the meeting;

 

  · at least five shareholders entitled to vote at the meeting;

 

  · any shareholder or shareholders representing in the aggregate not less than one-tenth of the total voting rights of all shareholders entitled to vote at the meeting; or

 

  · any shareholder or shareholders holding shares conferring a right to vote at the meeting on which there have been paid up sums in the aggregate equal to not less than one-tenth of the total sum paid up on all the shares conferring that right.

 

In a vote by a show of hands, every shareholder who is present in person or by proxy at a general meeting has one vote. In a vote on a poll, every shareholder who is present in person or by proxy shall have one vote for every share of which they are registered as the holder (provided that no shareholder shall have more than one vote on a show of hands notwithstanding that he may have appointed more than one proxy to vote on his behalf). The quorum for a shareholders’ meeting is a minimum of two persons holding at least 15% of the share capital, present in person or by proxy. To the extent the Articles of Association provide for a vote by a show of hands in which each shareholder has one vote, this differs from U.S. law, under which each shareholder typically is entitled to one vote per share at all meetings.

 

Holders of ADSs are also entitled to vote by supplying their voting instructions to Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas who will vote the ordinary shares represented by their ADSs in accordance with their instructions. The ability of Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations, the terms of our Articles of Association, and the terms of the ordinary shares on deposit. We cannot assure the holders of our ADSs that they will receive voting materials in time to enable them to return voting instructions to Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas a timely manner.

 

Unless otherwise required by law or the Articles of Association, voting in a general meeting is by ordinary resolution. An ordinary resolution is approved by a majority vote of the shareholders present at a meeting at which there is a quorum. Examples of matters that can be approved by an ordinary resolution include:

 

  · the election of directors;

 

  · the approval of financial statements;

 

  · the declaration of final dividends;

 

  · the appointment of auditors;

 

  · the increase of authorized share capital; or

 

  · the grant of authority to issue shares.

 

A special resolution or an extraordinary resolution requires the affirmative vote of not less than three-fourths of the eligible votes. Examples of matters that must be approved by a special resolution include modifications to the rights of any class of shares, certain changes to the Articles of Association, or our winding-up.

 

Limitation on Owning Securities

 

Our Articles of Association do not restrict in any way the ownership or voting of ordinary shares by non-residents. Furthermore, there is no longer an obligation of a shareholder of a UK company which is a non-listed (in the UK or EU) company to voluntarily disclose his shareholding unless, required to do so by the company. If the company serves a demand on a person under section 793 to the Companies Act 2006, that person will be required to disclose any interest he has in the shares of the company.

 

Change in Control

 

We can issue additional shares with any rights or restrictions attached to them as long as not restricted by any rights attached to existing shares. These rights or restrictions can be decided by the directors so long as there is no conflict with any resolution passed by the shareholders. The ability of the directors to issue shares with rights or restrictions that are different than those attached to the currently outstanding ordinary shares could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing change of control of our company.

 

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In addition, as discussed above under “- A. Directors and Senior Management”, our board of directors is divided into three classes for purposes of election. One class is elected at each annual meeting of stockholders to serve for a three-year term. Because this would prevent shareholders from replacing the entire board at a single meeting, this provision could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company.

 

We may in the future be subject to the UK Takeover Code which is not binding on our company at the present time. Nevertheless, the UK Takeover Code could apply to our company under certain circumstances in the future and if that were to occur, each shareholder who is to acquire more than 29.9% of our issued and outstanding shares could, in most circumstances, be required to make an offer for all the shares in our company under the terms of the UK Takeover Code.

 

Differences in Corporate Law Between England and the State Of Delaware

 

As a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, the rights of our shareholders are governed by applicable English law, including the Companies Act, and not by the law of any U.S. state. As a result, our directors and shareholders are subject to different responsibilities, rights and privileges than are applicable to directors and shareholders of U.S. corporations. We have set below a summary of the differences between the provisions of the Companies Act applicable to us and the Delaware General Corporation Law relating to shareholders’ rights and protections. This summary is not intended to be a complete discussion of the respective rights and it is qualified in its entirety by reference to English law, Delaware law and our Articles of Association. Before investing, you should consult your legal advisor regarding the impact of English corporate law on your specific circumstances and reasons for investing. The summary below does not include a description of rights or obligations under the U.S. federal securities laws or NASDAQ listing requirements. You are also urged to carefully read the relevant provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Companies Act for a more complete understanding of the differences between Delaware and English law.

 

    Delaware   England
         
Number of Directors   Under Delaware law, a corporation must have at least one director and the number of directors shall be fixed by or in the manner provided in the bylaws, unless specified in the certificate of incorporation.   Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must have at least two directors and the number of directors may be fixed by or in the manner provided in a company’s articles of association.
         
Removal of Directors   Under Delaware law, directors may be removed from office, with or without cause, by a majority shareholder vote, except (a) in the case of a corporation whose board is classified, shareholders may effect such removal only for cause, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, and (b) in the case of a corporation having cumulative voting, if less than the entire board is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against his or her removal would be sufficient to elect him or her if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire board of directors, or, if there are classes of directors, at an election of the class of directors of which he or she is a part.   Under the Companies Act, shareholders may remove a director without cause by an ordinary resolution (which is passed by a simple majority of those voting in person or by proxy at a general meeting) irrespective of any provisions of any service contract the director has with the company, provided that 28 clear days’ notice of the resolution is given to the company and certain other procedural requirements under the Companies Act are followed (such as allowing the director to make representations against his or her removal at the meeting and/or in writing).
         
Vacancies on the Board of Directors   Under Delaware law, vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office (even though less than a quorum) or by a sole remaining director unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the corporation.   Under English law, the procedure by which directors (other than a company’s initial directors) are appointed is generally set out in a company’s articles of association, provided that where two or more persons are appointed as directors of a public limited company by resolution of the shareholders, resolutions appointing each director must be voted on individually unless a resolution of the shareholders that such resolutions do not have to be voted on individually is first agreed to by the meeting without any vote being given against it.

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Annual General Meeting   Under Delaware law, the annual meeting of shareholders shall be held at such place, on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or as provided in the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.   Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must hold an annual general meeting each year. This meeting must be held within six months beginning with the day following the company’s accounting reference date.
         
General Meeting   Under Delaware law, special meetings of the shareholders may be called by the board of directors or by such person or persons as may be authorized by the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.   Under the Companies Act, a general meeting of the shareholders of a public limited company may be called by the directors. Shareholders holding at least 5% of the paid-up capital (excluding any paid-up capital held as treasury shares) of the company carrying voting rights at general meetings can also require the directors to call a general meeting.
         
Notice of General Meetings   Under Delaware law, written notice of any meeting of the shareholders must be given to each shareholder entitled to vote at the meeting not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting and shall specify the place, date, hour and purpose or purposes of the meeting.  

The Companies Act provides that a general meeting (other than an adjourned meeting) must be called by notice of:

 

•      in the case of an annual general meeting, at least 21 days; and

 

•      in any other case, at least 14 days.

         
        The company’s articles of association may provide for a longer period of notice and, in addition, certain matters (such as the removal of directors or auditors) require special notice, which is 28 clear days’ notice. The shareholders of a company may in all cases consent to a shorter notice period, the proportion of shareholders’ consent required being 100% of those entitled to attend and vote in the case of an annual general meeting and, in the case of any other general meeting, a majority in number of the members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, being a majority who together hold not less than 95% in nominal value of the shares giving a right to attend and vote at the meeting.

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Quorum   The certificate of incorporation or bylaws may specify the number of shares, the holders of which shall be present or represented by proxy at any meeting in order to constitute a quorum, but in no event shall a quorum consist of less than 1/3 of the shares entitled to vote at the meeting. In the absence of such specification in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, a majority of the shares entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of shareholders.   Subject to the provisions of a company’s articles of association, the Companies Act provides that two shareholders present at a meeting (in person or by proxy) shall constitute a quorum.
         
Proxy   Under Delaware law, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to act for such shareholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.   Under the Companies Act, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to attend, speak and vote at the meeting on their behalf by proxy (or, in the case of a shareholder which is a corporate body, by way of a corporate representative).
         
Issue of New Shares   Under Delaware law, if the company’s certificate of incorporation so provides, the directors have the power to authorize additional stock. The directors may authorize capital stock to be issued for consideration consisting of cash, any tangible or intangible property or any benefit to the company or any combination thereof.  

Under the Companies Act, the directors of a company must not exercise any power to allot shares or grant rights to subscribe for, or to convert any security into, shares unless they are authorized to do so by the company’s articles of association or by an ordinary resolution of the shareholders.

 

Any authorization given must state the maximum amount of shares that may be allotted under it and specify the date on which it will expire, which must be not more than five years from the date the authorization was given. The authority can be renewed by a further resolution of the shareholders.

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Pre-emptive Rights   Under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in a corporation’s certificate of incorporation, a stockholder does not, by operation of law, possess pre-emptive rights to subscribe to additional issuances of the corporation’s stock.   Under the Companies Act, “equity securities” (being (i) shares in the company other than shares that, with respect to dividends and capital, carry a right to participate only up to a specified amount in a distribution (“ordinary shares”) or (ii) rights to subscribe for, or to convert securities into, ordinary shares) proposed to be allotted for cash must be offered first to the existing equity shareholders in the company in proportion to the respective nominal value of their holdings, unless an exception applies or a special resolution to the contrary has been passed by shareholders in a general meeting or the articles of association provide otherwise in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act.
         
Liability of Directors and Officers  

Under Delaware law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may include a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation and its shareholders for monetary damages arising from a breach of fiduciary duty as a director. However, no provision can limit the liability of a director for:

 

•      any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its shareholders;

 

•      acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

•      willful or negligent payment of unlawful dividends or stock purchases or redemptions; or

 

•      any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.

 

Under the Companies Act, any provision (whether contained in a company’s articles of association or any contract or otherwise) that purports to exempt a director of a company (to any extent) from any liability that would otherwise attach to him in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company is void.

 

Any provision by which a company directly or indirectly provides an indemnity (to any extent) for a director of the company or of an associated company against any liability attaching to him in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company of which he or she is a director is also void except as permitted by the Companies Act, which provides exceptions for the company to: (i) purchase and maintain insurance against such liability; (ii) provide a “qualifying third party indemnity” (being an indemnity against liability incurred by the director to a person other than the company or an associated company. Such indemnity must not cover fines imposed in criminal proceedings, penalties imposed by regulatory bodies arising out of non-compliance with regulatory requirements, the defense costs of criminal proceedings where the director is found guilty, the defense costs of civil proceedings successfully brought against the director by the company or an associated company, and the costs of unsuccessful applications by the director for relief); and (iii) provide a “qualifying pension scheme indemnity” (being an indemnity against liability incurred in connection with the company’s activities as trustee of an occupational pension plan).

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Voting Rights   Delaware law provides that, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each shareholder of record is entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such shareholder.   Under English law, unless a poll is demanded by the shareholders of a company or is required by the Chairman of the meeting or the company’s articles of association, shareholders shall vote on all resolutions on a show of hands.
         
        Under the Companies Act, a poll may be demanded by: (i) not fewer than five shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution; (ii) any shareholder(s) representing at least 10% of the total voting rights of all the shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution (excluding any voting rights attached to treasury shares); or (iii) any shareholder (s) holding shares in the company conferring a right to vote on the resolution being shares on which an aggregate sum has been paid up equal to not less than 10% of the total sum paid up on all the shares conferring that right. A company’s articles of association may provide more extensive rights for shareholders to call a poll.
         
        Under English law, an ordinary resolution is passed on a show of hands if it is approved by a simple majority (more than 50%) of the votes cast by shareholders present (in person or by proxy) and entitled to vote. If a poll is demanded, an ordinary resolution is passed if it is approved by holders representing a simple majority of the total voting rights of shareholders present (in person or by proxy) who (being entitled to vote) vote on the resolution. Special resolutions require the affirmative vote of not less than 75% of the votes cast by shareholders present (in person or by proxy) at the meeting.

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Variation of Class Rights   Under Delaware law, the holders of the outstanding shares of a class shall be entitled to vote as a class upon a proposed amendment, whether or not entitled to vote thereon by the certificate of incorporation, if the amendment would increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of such class, increase or decrease the par value of the shares of such class, or alter or change the powers, preferences or special rights of the shares of such class so as to affect them adversely.  

The Companies Act provides that rights attached to a class of shares may only be varied or abrogated in accordance with provision in the company’s articles for the variation or abrogation of those rights or, where the company’s articles contain no such provision, if the holders of shares of that class consent to the variation or abrogation. Consent for these purposes means:

 

•      consent in writing from the holders of at least 75% in nominal value of the issued shares of that class (excluding any shares held as treasury shares); or

 

•      a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of that class sanctioning the variation.

         
        The Companies Act provides that the quorum for a class meeting is not less than two persons holding or representing by proxy at least one-third of the nominal value of the issued shares of that class. Following a variation of class rights, shareholders who amount to not less than 15% of the shareholders of the class in question who did not approve the variation may apply to court to have the variation cancelled. Any application must be made within 21 days of the variation. The court may cancel the variation if it is satisfied having regard to all the circumstances of the case that the variation would unfairly prejudice the shareholders of the class represented by the applicant.

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Shareholder Vote on Certain Transactions  

Generally, under Delaware law, unless the certificate of incorporation provides for the vote of a larger portion of the stock, completion of a merger, consolidation, sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of a corporation’s assets or dissolution requires:

 

•      the approval of the board of directors; and

 

•      approval by the vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding stock or, if the certificate of incorporation provides for more or less than one vote per share, a majority of the votes of the outstanding stock of a corporation entitled to vote on the matter.

 

Under Delaware law, a contract or transaction between the company and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the company and any other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers, are directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall not be void solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer participates in the meeting of the board which authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because any such director’s or officer’s votes are counted for such purpose, if:

 

•      the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the board, and the board in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum;

 

The Companies Act provides for schemes of arrangement, which are arrangements or compromises between a company and any class of shareholders or creditors and used in certain types of reconstructions, amalgamations, capital reorganizations or takeovers. These arrangements require:

 

•      the approval at a shareholders’ or creditors’ meeting convened by order of the court, of a majority in number of shareholders or creditors representing 75% in value of the capital held by, or debt owed to, the class of shareholders or creditors, or class thereof present and voting, either in person or by proxy; and

 

•      the approval of the court.

 

Once approved, sanctioned and effective, all shareholders and creditors of the relevant class and the company are bound by the terms of the scheme. The Companies Act also contains certain provisions relating to transactions between a director and the company, including transactions involving the acquisition of substantial non-cash assets from a director or the sale of substantial noncash assets to a director, and loans between a company and a director or certain connected persons of directors. If such transactions meet certain thresholds set out within the Companies Act the approval of shareholders by ordinary resolution will be required.

         
   

•      the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the shareholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the shareholders; or

 

•      the contract or transaction is fair as to the corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified, by the board of directors, a committee or the shareholders.

   

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Standard of Conduct for Directors   Delaware law does not contain specific provisions setting forth the standard of conduct of a director. The scope of the fiduciary duties of directors is generally determined by the courts of the State of Delaware. In general, directors have a duty to act without self-interest, on a well-informed basis and in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interest of the shareholders. Directors of a Delaware corporation owe fiduciary duties of care and loyalty to the corporation and to its shareholders. The duty of care generally requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself or herself of all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director act in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. The director must not use his or her corporate position for personal gain or advantage. In addition, under Delaware law, when the board of directors of a Delaware corporation approves the sale or break-up of a corporation, the board of directors may, in certain circumstances, have a duty to obtain the highest value reasonably available to the shareholders.  

Under English law, a director owes various statutory and fiduciary duties to the company, including:

 

•      to act in the way he or she considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its shareholders as a whole;

 

•      to avoid a situation in which he or she has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly conflicts, with the interests of the company;

 

•      to act in accordance with the company’s constitution and only exercise his or her powers for the purposes for which they are conferred;

 

•      to exercise independent judgment;

 

•      to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence;

 

•      not to accept benefits from a third party conferred by reason of his or her being a director or doing (or not doing) anything as a director; and

 

•      a duty to declare any interest that he or she has, whether directly or indirectly, in a proposed or existing transaction or arrangement with the company.

 

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    Delaware   England
         
Shareholder Suits  

Under Delaware law, a shareholder may initiate a derivative action to enforce a right of a corporation if the corporation fails to enforce the right itself. The complaint must:

 

•      state that the plaintiff was a shareholder at the time of the transaction of which the plaintiff complains or that the plaintiff’s shares thereafter devolved on the plaintiff by operation of law; and

 

•      allege with particularity the efforts made by the plaintiff to obtain the action the plaintiff desires from the directors and the reasons for the plaintiff’s failure to obtain the action; or

 

•      state the reasons for not making the effort. Additionally, the plaintiff must remain a shareholder through the duration of the derivative suit.

  Under English law, generally, the company, rather than its shareholders, is the proper claimant in an action in respect of a wrong done to the company or where there is an irregularity in the company’s internal management. Notwithstanding this general position, the Companies Act provides that (i) a court may allow a shareholder to bring a derivative claim (that is, an action in respect of and on behalf of the company) in respect of a cause of action arising from a director’s negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust, subject to complying with the procedural requirements under the Companies Act and (ii) a shareholder may bring a claim for a court order where the company’s affairs have been or are being conducted in a manner that is unfairly prejudicial to some or all of its shareholders.

 

Other U.K. Law Considerations

 

Squeeze-Out

 

Under the Companies Act, if a takeover offer (as defined in Section 974 of the Companies Act) is made for the shares of a company and the offeror were to acquire, or unconditionally contract to acquire: (i) not less than 90% in value of the shares to which the takeover offer relates (the “Takeover Offer Shares”); and (ii) where those shares are voting shares, not less than 90% of the voting rights attached to the Takeover Offer Shares, the offeror could acquire compulsorily the remaining 10% within three months of the day after the last day on which its offer can be accepted. It would do so by sending a notice to outstanding shareholders telling them that it will acquire compulsorily their Takeover Offer Shares and then, six weeks later, it would execute a transfer of the outstanding Takeover Offer Shares in its favor and pay the consideration to the company, which would hold the consideration on trust for outstanding shareholders. The consideration offered to the shareholders whose Takeover Offer Shares are acquired compulsorily under the Companies Act must, in general, be the same as the consideration that was available under the takeover offer.

 

Sell-Out

 

The Companies Act also gives minority shareholders a right to be bought out in certain circumstances by an offeror who has made a takeover offer (as defined in Section 974 of the Companies Act). If a takeover offer related to all the shares of a company and, at any time before the end of the period within which the offer could be accepted, the offeror held or had agreed to acquire not less than 90% of the shares to which the offer relates, any holder of the shares to which the offer related who had not accepted the offer could by a written communication to the offeror require it to acquire those shares. The offeror is required to give any shareholder notice of his or her right to be bought out within one month of that right arising. The offeror may impose a time limit on the rights of the minority shareholders to be bought out, but that period cannot end less than three months after the end of the acceptance period. If a shareholder exercises his or her rights, the offeror is bound to acquire those shares on the terms of the offer or on such other terms as may be agreed.

 

Disclosure of Interest in Shares

 

Pursuant to Part 22 of the Companies Act, a company is empowered by notice in writing to require any person whom the company knows to be, or has reasonable cause to believe to be, interested in the company’s shares or at any time during the three years immediately preceding the date on which the notice is issued to have been so interested, within a reasonable time to disclose to the company details of that person’s interest and (so far as is within such person’s knowledge) details of any other interest that subsists or subsisted in those shares. If a shareholder defaults in supplying the company with the required details in relation to the shares in question (the “Default Shares”), the shareholder shall not be entitled to vote or exercise any other right conferred by membership in relation to general meetings. Where the Default Shares represent 0.25% or more of the issued shares of the class in question, in certain circumstances the directors may direct that:

 

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  (i)

any dividend or other money payable in respect of the Default Shares shall be retained by the company without any liability to

pay interest on it when such dividend or other money is finally paid to the shareholder; and/or

 

  (ii)

no transfer by the relevant shareholder of shares (other than a transfer approved in accordance with the provisions of the

company’s articles of association) may be registered (unless such shareholder is not in default and the transfer does not relate

to Default Shares).

 

Dividends

 

Under English law, before a company can lawfully make a distribution, it must ensure that it has sufficient distributable reserves. A company’s distributable reserves are its accumulated, realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less its accumulated, realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital duly made. In addition to having sufficient distributable reserves, a public company will not be permitted to make a distribution if, at the time, the amount of its net assets (that is, the aggregate of the company’s assets less the aggregate of its liabilities) is less than the aggregate of its issued and paid-up share capital and undistributable reserves, or if the distribution would result in the amount of its net assets being less than that aggregate.

 

Purchase of Own Shares

 

Under English law, a public limited company may purchase its own shares only out of the distributable profits of the company or the proceeds of a new issue of shares made for the purpose of financing the purchase, provided that it is not restricted from doing so by its articles. A public limited company may not purchase its own shares if as a result of the purchase there would no longer be any issued shares of the company other than redeemable shares or shares held as treasury shares. Shares must be fully paid in order to be repurchased.

 

Subject to the foregoing, because NASDAQ is not a “recognized investment exchange” under the Companies Act, a company may purchase its own fully paid shares only pursuant to a purchase contract authorized by ordinary resolution of the holders of its ordinary shares before the purchase takes place. Any authority will not be effective if any shareholder from whom the company proposes to purchase shares votes on the resolution and the resolution would not have been passed if such shareholder had not done so. The resolution authorizing the purchase must specify a date, not being later than five years after the passing of the resolution, on which the authority to purchase is to expire.

 

A share buy back by a company of its ordinary shares will give rise to U.K. stamp duty at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration payable by the company, and such stamp duty will be paid by the company. Our Articles of Association do not have conditions governing changes in our capital which are more stringent than those required by law.

 

Statutory Pre-Emption Rights

 

Under English law, a company must not allot equity securities to a person on any terms unless the following conditions are satisfied:

 

  (i) it has made an offer to each person who holds ordinary shares in the company to allot to them on the same or more favorable terms a proportion of those securities that is as nearly as practicable equal to the proportion in nominal value held by them of the ordinary share capital of the company; and

 

  (ii) the period during which any such offer may be accepted has expired or the company has received notice of the acceptance or refusal of every offer so made.

 

For these purposes “equity securities” means ordinary shares in the company or rights to subscribe for, or to convert securities into, ordinary shares in the company. “Ordinary shares” means shares other than shares that, with respect to dividends and capital, carry a right to participate only up to a specified amount in a distribution. The statutory pre-emption rights are subject to certain exceptions, including the issue of ordinary shares for non-cash consideration, an allotment of bonus shares and the allotment of equity securities pursuant to an employees’ share scheme. The statutory pre-emption rights may also be disapplied with the approval of 75% of shareholders.

 

U.K. City Code On Takeovers And Mergers

 

Since our central place of management is not in the United Kingdom, we are currently not subject to the U.K. City Code on Takeovers and Mergers (the “Takeover Code”), which is issued and administered by the U.K. Panel on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Panel.

 

The Takeover Code provides a framework within which takeovers of companies subject to it are conducted. In particular, the Takeover Code contains certain rules in respect of mandatory offers. Under Rule 9 of the Takeover Code, if a person:

 

  · acquires an interest in our shares which, when taken together with shares in which he or persons acting in concert with him are interested, carries 30% or more of the voting rights of our shares; or

 

  · who, together with persons acting in concert with him, is interested in shares that in the aggregate carry not less than 30% and not more than 50% of the voting rights in us, acquires additional interests in shares that increase the percentage of shares carrying voting rights in which that person is interested, the acquirer and depending on the circumstances, its concert parties, would be required (except with the consent of the Panel) to make a cash offer for our outstanding shares at a price not less than the highest price paid for any interests in the shares by the acquirer or its concert parties during the previous 12 months.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

American Depositary Shares

 

Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, will register and deliver the ADSs. Each ADS will represent ownership of 100 ordinary shares deposited with State Street Bank & Trust Company, having its principal office at 525 Ferry Road, Crewe Toll, Edinburgh, EH5 2AW Scotland, as custodian for the depositary. Each ADS will also represent ownership of any other securities, cash or other property which may be held by the depositary. The depositary’s corporate trust office at which the ADSs will be administered is located at 60 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005, USA. The principal executive office of the depositary is located at 60 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005, USA.

 

The Direct Registration System, or DRS, is a system administered by The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, pursuant to which the depositary may register the ownership of uncertificated ADSs, which ownership shall be evidenced by periodic statements issued by the depositary to the ADS holders entitled thereto.

 

We will not treat ADS holders as our shareholders and accordingly, you, as an ADS holder, will not have shareholder rights. English law governs shareholder rights. The depositary will be the holder of the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. As a holder of ADSs, you will have ADS holder rights. A deposit agreement among us, the depositary and you, as an ADS holder, and the beneficial owners of ADSs sets out ADS holder rights as well as the rights and obligations of the depositary. The laws of the State of New York govern the deposit agreement and the ADSs.

 

The following is a summary of the material provisions of the deposit agreement. For more complete information, you should read the entire deposit agreement and the form of American Depositary Receipt.

 

Holding the ADSs

 

How will you hold your ADSs?

 

You may hold ADSs either (1) directly (a) by having an American Depositary Receipt, or ADR, which is a certificate evidencing a specific number of ADSs, registered in your name, or (b) by holding ADSs in the DRS, or (2) indirectly through your broker or other financial institution. If you hold ADSs directly, you are an ADS holder. This description assumes you hold your ADSs directly. If you hold the ADSs indirectly, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or other financial institution to assert the rights of ADS holders described in this section. You should consult with your broker or financial institution to find out what those procedures are.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions

 

How will you receive dividends and other distributions on the shares?

 

The depositary has agreed to pay to ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on ordinary shares or other deposited securities, after deducting its fees and expenses. The holder of ADSs will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares their ADSs represent as of the record date (which will be as close as practicable to the record date for our ordinary shares) set by the depositary with respect to the ADSs.

 

  · Cash.   The depositary will convert any cash dividend or other cash distribution we pay on the ordinary shares or any net proceeds from the sale of any ordinary shares, rights, securities or other entitlements into U.S. dollars if it can do so on a reasonable basis, and can transfer the U.S. dollars to the United States. If that is not possible or lawful or if any government approval is needed and cannot be obtained, the deposit agreement allows the depositary to distribute the foreign currency only to those ADS holders to whom it is possible to do so. It will hold the foreign currency it cannot convert for the account of the ADS holders who have not been paid. It will not invest the foreign currency and it will not be liable for any interest.

 

  · Before making a distribution, any taxes or other governmental charges, together with fees and expenses of the depositary, that must be paid, will be deducted. See “Taxation.” It will distribute only whole U.S. dollars and cents and will round fractional cents to the nearest whole cent. If the exchange rates fluctuate during a time when the depositary cannot convert the foreign currency, you may lose some or all of the value of the distribution.

 

  · Shares.   The depositary may distribute additional ADSs representing any ordinary shares we distribute as a dividend or free distribution to the extent reasonably practicable and permissible under law. The depositary will only distribute whole ADSs. It will try to sell ordinary shares which would require it to deliver a fractional ADS and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash. If the depositary does not distribute additional ADSs, the outstanding ADSs will also represent the new ordinary shares. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed ordinary shares sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution.

  

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  · Elective Distributions in Cash or Shares.   If we offer holders of our ordinary shares the option to receive dividends in either cash or shares, the depositary, after consultation with us and having received timely notice as described in the deposit agreement of such elective distribution by us, has discretion to determine to what extent such elective distribution will be made available to ADS holders. We must first instruct the depositary to make such elective distribution available to ADS holders and furnish it with satisfactory evidence that it is legal to do so. The depositary could decide it is not legal or reasonably practical to make such elective distribution available to ADS holders, or it could decide that it is only legal or reasonably practical to make such elective distribution available to some but not all holders of the ADSs. In such case, the depositary shall, on the basis of the same determination as is made in respect of the ordinary shares for which no election is made, distribute either cash in the same way as it does in a cash distribution, or additional ADSs representing ordinary shares in the same way as it does in a share distribution. The depositary is not obligated to make available to ADS holders a method to receive the elective dividend in shares rather than in ADSs. There can be no assurance that ADS holders will be given the opportunity to receive elective distributions on the same terms and conditions as the holders of ordinary shares.

 

  · Rights to Purchase Additional Shares.   If we offer holders of our ordinary shares any rights to subscribe for additional shares or any other rights, the depositary may after consultation with us and having received timely notice as described in the deposit agreement of such distribution by us, make these rights available to ADS holders. We must first instruct the depositary to make such rights available to ADS holders and furnish the depositary with satisfactory evidence that it is legal to do so. If the depositary decides it is not legal and practical to make the rights available but that it is practical to sell the rights, the depositary will use reasonable efforts to sell the rights and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash. The depositary will allow rights that are not distributed or sold to lapse. In that case, ADS holders will receive no value for them. If the depositary makes rights available to ADS holders, it will exercise the rights and purchase the shares on ADS holders’ behalf. The depositary will then deposit the shares and deliver ADSs to ADS holders. It will only exercise rights if ADS holders pay it the exercise price and any other charges the rights require that ADS holders to pay. U.S. securities laws may restrict transfers and cancellation of the ADSs represented by shares purchased upon exercise of rights. For example, ADS holders may not be able to trade these ADSs freely in the United States. In this case, the depositary may deliver restricted depositary shares that have the same terms as the ADSs described in this section except for changes needed to put the necessary restrictions in place.

 

  · Other Distributions.   Subject to receipt of timely notice from us with the request to make any such distribution available to ADS holders, and provided the depositary has determined such distribution is lawful and reasonably practicable and feasible and in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement, the depositary will send to ADS holders anything else we distribute on deposited securities by any means it thinks is legal, fair and practical. If it cannot make the distribution in that way, the depositary has a choice: it may decide to sell what we distributed and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash; or, it may decide to hold what we distributed, in which case ADSs will also represent the newly distributed property. However, the depositary is not required to distribute any securities (other than ADSs) to ADS holders unless it receives satisfactory evidence from us that it is legal to make that distribution. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed securities or property sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution.

 

  · The depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any ADS holders. We have no obligation to register ADSs, shares, rights or other securities under the Securities Act. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, shares, rights or anything else to ADS holders. This means that ADS holders may not receive the distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to ADS holders.

 

Deposit, Withdrawal and Cancellation

 

How are ADSs issued?

 

The depositary will deliver ADSs if an ADS holders or its broker deposit ordinary shares or evidence of rights to receive ordinary shares with the custodian. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will register the appropriate number of ADSs in the names the ADS holder requests and will deliver the ADSs to or upon the order of the person or persons entitled thereto.

 

How do ADS holders cancel an American Depositary Share?

 

You may turn in your ADSs at the depositary’s corporate trust office or by providing appropriate instructions to your broker. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will deliver the ordinary shares and any other deposited securities underlying the ADSs to you or a person you designate at the office of the custodian. Or, at your request, risk and expense, the depositary will deliver the deposited securities at its corporate trust office, if feasible.

 

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The depositary may refuse to accept for surrender ADSs only in the case of (i) temporary delays caused by closing our transfer books or those of the depositary or the deposit of our ordinary shares in connection with voting at a shareholders’ meeting or the payment of dividends, (ii) the payment of fees, taxes and similar charges and (iii) compliance with any laws or governmental regulations relating to depositary receipts or to the withdrawal of deposited securities. Subject thereto, in the case of surrender of a number of ADSs representing other than a whole number of our ordinary shares, the depositary will cause ownership of the appropriate whole number of our ordinary shares to be delivered in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement and will, at the discretion of the depositary, either (i) issue and deliver to the person surrendering such ADSs a new ADS representing any remaining fractional Ordinary Share or (ii) sell or cause to be sold the fractional ordinary shares represented by the ADSs surrendered and remit the proceeds of such sale (net of applicable fees and charges of, and expenses incurred by, the depositary and taxes and/or governmental charges) to the person surrendering the ADS.

 

How do ADS holders interchange between Certificated ADSs and Uncertificated ADSs?

 

You may surrender your ADR to the depositary for the purpose of exchanging your ADR for uncertificated ADSs. The depositary will cancel that ADR and will send you a statement confirming that you are the owner of uncertificated ADSs. Alternatively, upon receipt by the depositary of a proper instruction from a holder of uncertificated ADSs requesting the exchange of uncertificated ADSs for certificated ADSs, the depositary will execute and deliver to you an ADR evidencing those ADSs.

 

Voting Rights

 

How do you vote?

 

As an ADS holder, you may instruct the depositary to vote the deposited securities. Otherwise, you could exercise your right to vote directly if you withdraw the ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, you may not know about the meeting enough in advance to withdraw the ordinary shares.

 

If we ask for your instructions and upon timely notice from us as described in the deposit agreement, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. The materials will (1) describe the matters to be voted on and (2) explain how you may instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares or other deposited securities underlying your ADSs as you direct. Voting instructions may be given only by mail and in respect of a number of ADSs representing an integral number of our ordinary shares or other deposited securities. For instructions to be valid, the depositary must receive them on or before the date specified. The depositary will try, as far as practical, subject to the laws of the United Kingdom and the provisions of our constitutive documents, to vote or to have its agents vote the ordinary shares or other deposited securities as you instruct. The depositary will only vote or attempt to vote as you instruct.

 

We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may have no recourse if the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

 

In order to give you a reasonable opportunity to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of voting rights relating to deposited securities, if we request the depositary to act, we are required to give the depositary 30 days’ advance notice of any such meeting and details concerning the matters to be voted upon sufficiently in advance of the meeting date, and the depositary will mail you a notice.

 

Fees and Charges

 

As a holder of American Depository Shares, or ADSs, you will be required to pay the following service fees to the depositary bank:

 

Service:   Fee:
Issuance of ADSs, including issuances resulting from a distribution of shares or rights or other property   Up to $0.05 per ADS issued
Cancellation of ADSs, including in the case of termination of the deposit agreement   Up to $0.05 per ADS cancelled
Distribution of cash dividends or other cash distributions   Up to $0.02 per ADS held
Distribution of ADSs pursuant to share dividends, free share distributions or exercise of rights   Up to $0.05 per ADS held
Operation and maintenance costs in administering the ADSs   An annual fee of $0.02 per ADS held
Inspections of the relevant share register maintained by the local registrar and/or performing due diligence on the central securities depository for England and Wales   An annual fee of $0.01 per ADS held (such fee to be assessed against holders of record as at the date or dates set by the depositary as it sees fit and collected at the sole discretion of the depositary by billing such holders for such fee or by deducting such fee from one or more cash dividends or other cash distributions)

 

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As an ADS holder, you will also be responsible to pay certain fees and expenses incurred by the depositary bank and certain taxes and governmental charges such as:

 

  · Taxes (including applicable interest and penalties) and other governmental charges.

 

  · Such registration fees as may from time to time be in effect for the registration of ordinary shares or other deposited securities with the foreign registrar and applicable to transfers of ordinary shares or other deposited securities to or from the name of the custodian, the depositary or any nominees upon the making of deposits and withdrawals, respectively.

 

  · Expenses for cable, telex and fax transmissions and for delivery of securities.

 

  · Expenses and charges incurred by the Depositary in the conversion of foreign currency.

 

  ·

Fees and expenses incurred in connection with the delivery or servicing of ordinary shares on deposit, including any fees of a central depository for securities in the local market, where applicable.

 

  · Fees and expenses incurred in connection with complying with exchange control regulations and any other regulatory requirements that are not currently applicable but may arise or become applicable to ordinary shares, deposited securities, ADSs and ADRs.

 

  · Any applicable fees and penalties thereon.

 

The depositary fees payable upon the issuance and cancellation of ADSs are typically paid to the depositary bank by the brokers (on behalf of their clients) receiving the newly issued ADSs from the depositary bank and by the brokers (on behalf of their clients) delivering the ADSs to the depositary bank for cancellation. The brokers in turn charge these fees to their clients. Depositary fees payable in connection with distributions of cash or securities to ADS holders and the depositary services fee are charged by the depositary bank to the holders of record of ADSs as of the applicable ADS record date.

 

The depositary fees payable for cash distributions are generally deducted from the cash being distributed or by selling a portion of distributable property to pay the fees. In the case of distributions other than cash (i.e., share dividends, rights, etc.), the depositary bank charges the applicable fee to the ADS record date holders concurrent with the distribution. In the case of ADSs registered in the name of the investor (whether certificated or uncertificated in direct registration), the depositary bank sends invoices to the applicable record date ADS holders. In the case of ADSs held in brokerage and custodian accounts (via DTC), the depositary bank generally collects its fees through the systems provided by DTC (whose nominee is the registered holder of the ADSs held in DTC) from the brokers and custodians holding ADSs in their DTC accounts. The brokers and custodians who hold their clients’ ADSs in DTC accounts in turn charge their clients’ accounts the amount of the fees paid to the depositary banks.

 

In the event of refusal to pay the depositary fees, the depositary bank may, under the terms of the deposit agreement, refuse the requested service until payment is received or may set off the amount of the depositary fees from any distribution to be made to the ADS holder.

 

The depositary has agreed to reimburse us for a portion of certain expenses we incur that are related to establishment and maintenance of the American Depository Receipt, or ADR, program, including investor relations expenses. There are limits on the amount of expenses for which the depositary will reimburse us, but the amount of reimbursement available to us is not related to the amounts of fees the depositary collects from investors. Further, the depositary has agreed to reimburse us certain fees payable to the depositary by holders of ADSs. Neither the depositary nor we can determine the exact amount to be made available to us because (i) the number of ADSs that will be issued and outstanding, (ii) the level of service fees to be charged to holders of ADSs and (iii) our reimbursable expenses related to the program are not known at this time.

 

Payment of Taxes

 

As an ADS holder, you will be responsible for any taxes or other governmental charges payable on your ADSs or on the deposited securities represented by any of your ADSs. The depositary may refuse to register any transfer of your ADSs or allow you to withdraw the deposited securities represented by your ADSs until such taxes or other charges are paid. It may apply payments owed to you or sell deposited securities represented by your ADSs to pay any taxes owed and you will remain liable for any deficiency. If the depositary sells deposited securities, it will, if appropriate, reduce the number of ADSs to reflect the sale and pay to you any net proceeds, or send to you any property, remaining after it has paid the taxes. You agree to indemnify us, the depositary, the custodian and each of our and their respective agents, directors, employees and affiliates for, and hold each of them harmless from, any claims with respect to taxes (including applicable interest and penalties thereon) arising from any tax benefit obtained for you.

 

Reclassifications, Recapitalizations and Mergers

 

If we:   Then:
Change the nominal or par value of our ordinary shares   The cash, shares or other securities received by the depositary will become deposited securities.
Reclassify, split up or consolidate any of the deposited securities   Each ADS will automatically represent its equal share of the new deposited securities.
Distribute securities on the ordinary shares that are not distributed to you or recapitalize, reorganize, merge, liquidate, sell all or substantially all of our assets, or take any similar action   The depositary may distribute some or all of the cash, shares or other securities it received. It may also deliver new ADSs or ask you to surrender your outstanding ADRs in exchange for new ADRs identifying the new deposited securities.

 

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Amendment and Termination

 

How may the deposit agreement be amended?

 

We may agree with the depositary to amend the deposit agreement and the form of ADR without your consent for any reason. If an amendment adds or increases fees or charges, except for taxes and other governmental charges or expenses of the depositary for registration fees, facsimile costs, delivery charges or similar items, including expenses incurred in connection with foreign exchange control regulations and other charges specifically payable by ADS holders under the deposit agreement, or materially prejudices a substantial existing right of ADS holders, it will not become effective for outstanding ADSs until 30 days after the depositary notifies ADS holders of the amendment. At the time an amendment becomes effective, you are considered, by continuing to hold your ADSs, to agree to the amendment and to be bound by the ADRs and the deposit agreement as amended.

 

How may the deposit agreement be terminated?

 

The depositary will terminate the deposit agreement if we ask it to do so, in which case the depositary will give notice to you at least 90 days prior to termination. The depositary may also terminate the deposit agreement if the depositary has told us that it would like to resign and we have not appointed a new depositary within 90 days. In such case, the depositary must notify you at least 30 days before termination.

 

After termination, the depositary and its agents will do the following under the deposit agreement but nothing else: collect distributions on the deposited securities, sell rights and other property and deliver ordinary shares and other deposited securities upon cancellation of ADSs after payment of any fees, charges, taxes or other governmental charges. Six months or more after termination, the depositary may sell any remaining deposited securities by public or private sale. After that, the depositary will hold the money it received on the sale, as well as any other cash it is holding under the deposit agreement, for the pro rata benefit of the ADS holders that have not surrendered their ADSs. It will not invest the money and has no liability for interest. The depositary’s only obligations will be to account for the money and other cash. After termination, our only obligations will be to indemnify the depositary and to pay fees and expenses of the depositary that we agreed to pay.

 

Books of Depositary

 

The depositary will maintain ADS holder records at its depositary office. You may inspect such records at such office during regular business hours but solely for the purpose of communicating with other holders in the interest of business matters relating to the ADSs and the deposit agreement.

 

The depositary will maintain facilities in New York to record and process the issuance, cancellation, combination, split-up and transfer of ADRs.

 

These facilities may be closed from time to time, to the extent not prohibited by law or if any such action is deemed necessary or advisable by the depositary or us, in good faith, at any time or from time to time because of any requirement of law, any government or governmental body or commission or any securities exchange on which the ADRs or ADSs are listed, or under any provision of the deposit agreement or provisions of, or governing, the deposited securities, or any meeting of our shareholders or for any other reason.

  

Limitations on Obligations and Liability

 

Limits on our Obligations and the Obligations of the Depositary; Limits on Liability to Holders of ADSs

 

The deposit agreement expressly limits our obligations and the obligations of the depositary. It also limits our liability and the liability of the depositary. We and the depositary:

 

  · are only obligated to take the actions specifically set forth in the deposit agreement without gross negligence or willful misconduct;

 

  · are not liable if either of us is prevented or delayed by law or circumstances beyond our control from performing our obligations under the deposit agreement, including, without limitation, requirements of any present or future law, regulation, governmental or regulatory authority or share exchange of any applicable jurisdiction, any present or future provisions of our memorandum and articles of association, on account of possible civil or criminal penalties or restraint, any provisions of or governing the deposited securities or any act of God, war or other circumstances beyond our control as set forth in the deposit agreement;

 

  · are not liable if either of us exercises, or fails to exercise, discretion permitted under the deposit agreement;

 

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  · have no obligation to become involved in a lawsuit or other proceeding related to the ADSs or the deposit agreement on your behalf or on behalf of any other party;

 

  · may rely upon any documents we believe in good faith to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party;

 

  · disclaim any liability for any action/inaction in reliance on the advice or information of legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting ordinary shares for deposit, holders and beneficial owners (or authorized representatives) of ADSs, or any person believed in good faith to be competent to give such advice or information;

 

  · disclaim any liability for inability of any holder to benefit from any distribution, offering, right or other benefit made available to holders of deposited securities but not made available to holders of ADSs; and

 

  · disclaim any liability for any indirect, special, punitive or consequential damages.

 

The depositary and any of its agents also disclaim any liability for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, the manner in which any vote is cast or the effect of any vote or failure to determine that any distribution or action may be lawful or reasonably practicable or for allowing any rights to lapse in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement, the failure or timeliness of any notice from us, the content of any information submitted to it by us for distribution to you or for any inaccuracy of any translation thereof, any investment risk associated with the acquisition of an interest in the deposited securities, the validity or worth of the deposited securities, the credit-worthiness of any third party, or for any tax consequences that may result from ownership of ADSs, ordinary shares or deposited securities.

 

In the deposit agreement, we and the depositary agree to indemnify each other under certain circumstances.

 

Requirements for Depositary Actions

 

Before the depositary will issue, deliver or register a transfer of an ADS, make a distribution on an ADS, or permit withdrawal of ordinary shares, the depositary may require:

 

  · payment of stock transfer or other taxes or other governmental charges and transfer or registration fees charged by third parties for the transfer of any ordinary shares or other deposited securities and payment of the applicable fees, expenses and charges of the depositary;
     
  ·

satisfactory proof of the identity and genuineness of any signature or other information it deems necessary; and 

     
  · compliance with regulations it may establish, from time to time, consistent with the deposit agreement, including presentation of transfer documents.

 

The depositary may refuse to issue and deliver ADSs or register transfers of ADSs generally when the register of the depositary or our transfer books are closed or at any time if the depositary or we think it is necessary or advisable to do so.

 

Your Right to Receive the Shares Underlying Your ADSs

 

You have the right to cancel your ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares at any time except:

 

  · when temporary delays arise because: (1) the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books; (2) the transfer of ordinary shares is blocked to permit voting at a shareholders’ meeting; or (3) we are paying a dividend on our ordinary shares;
     
  · when you owe money to pay fees, taxes and similar charges; or
     
  · when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of ordinary shares or other deposited securities.

 

This right of withdrawal may not be limited by any other provision of the deposit agreement.

 

Pre-release of ADSs

 

The deposit agreement permits the depositary to deliver ADSs before deposit of the underlying ordinary shares. This is called a pre-release of the ADSs. The depositary may also deliver ordinary shares upon cancellation of pre-released ADSs (even if the ADSs are cancelled before the pre-release transaction has been closed out). A pre-release is closed out as soon as the underlying ordinary shares are delivered to the depositary. The depositary may receive ADSs instead of ordinary shares to close out a pre-release. The depositary may pre-release ADSs only under the following conditions: (1) before or at the time of the pre-release, the person to whom the pre-release is being made represents to the depositary in writing that it or its customer (a) owns the ordinary shares or ADSs to be deposited, (b) assigns all beneficial rights, title and interest in such ordinary shares or ADSs to the depositary for the benefit of the owners, (c) will not take any action with respect to such ordinary shares or ADSs that is inconsistent with the transfer of beneficial ownership, (d) indicates the depositary as owner of such ordinary shares or ADSs in its records, and (e) unconditionally guarantees to deliver such ordinary shares or ADSs to the depositary or the custodian, as the case may be; (2) the pre-release is fully collateralized with cash or other collateral that the depositary considers appropriate; and (3) the depositary must be able to close out the pre-release on not more than five business days’ notice. Each pre-release is subject to further indemnities and credit regulations as the depositary considers appropriate. In addition, the depositary will normally limit the number of ADSs that may be outstanding at any time as a result of pre-release to 30% of the aggregate number of ADSs then outstanding, although the depositary, in its sole discretion, may disregard the limit from time to time, if it thinks it is appropriate to do so, including (1) due to a decrease in the aggregate number of ADSs outstanding that causes existing pre-release transactions to temporarily exceed the limit stated above or (2) where otherwise required by market conditions. The depositary may also set limits with respect to the number of ADSs and Shares involved in pre-release transactions with any one person on a case-by-case basis as it deems appropriate.

 

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Direct Registration System

 

In the deposit agreement, all parties to the deposit agreement acknowledge that the DRS and Profile Modification System, or Profile, will apply to uncertificated ADSs upon acceptance thereof to DRS by DTC. DRS is the system administered by DTC pursuant to which the depositary may register the ownership of uncertificated ADSs, which ownership shall be evidenced by periodic statements issued by the depositary to the ADS holders entitled thereto. Profile is a required feature of DRS which allows a DTC participant, claiming to act on behalf of an ADS holder, to direct the depositary to register a transfer of those ADSs to DTC or its nominee and to deliver those ADSs to the DTC account of that DTC participant without receipt by the depositary of prior authorization from the ADS holder to register such transfer.

 

In connection with and in accordance with the arrangements and procedures relating to DRS/Profile, the parties to the deposit agreement understand that the depositary will not verify, determine or otherwise ascertain that the DTC participant which is claiming to be acting on behalf of an ADS holder in requesting registration of transfer and delivery described in the paragraph above has the actual authority to act on behalf of the ADS holder (notwithstanding any requirements under the Uniform Commercial Code). In the deposit agreement, the parties agree that the depositary’s reliance on, and compliance with, instructions received by the depositary through the DRS/Profile System and in accordance with the deposit agreement, shall not constitute negligence or bad faith on the part of the depositary.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue and offer warrants under the material terms and conditions described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. The accompanying prospectus supplement may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the warrants as described in this prospectus.

 

We may issue warrants to purchase our ordinary shares, including shares represented by ADSs, and/or debt securities. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any securities and may be attached to or separate from those securities. The warrants may be issued under warrant or subscription agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent, all of which will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants we are offering. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.

 

The particular terms of the warrants, the warrant or subscription agreements relating to the warrants and the warrant certificates representing the warrants will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, as applicable:

 

  · the title of such warrants;

 

  · the aggregate number of such warrants;

 

  · the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued and exercised;

 

  · the currency or currencies in which the price of such warrants will be payable;

 

  · the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

 

  · the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

  · if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

  · if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;

 

  · if applicable, the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

  · if applicable, any provisions for cashless exercise of the warrants;

 

  · if applicable; any exercise limitations with respect to the ownership limitations by the holder exercising the warrant;

 

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  · information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

  · any material United Kingdom and United States federal income tax consequences;

 

  · the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any; and

 

  · any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.

 

Holders of warrants will not be entitled, solely by virtue of being holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice as shareholders with respect to any meeting of shareholders for the election of directors or any other matters, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as a holder of the equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any warrants we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable warrant agreement and warrant certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer warrants. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable warrant agreement if we offer warrants, see “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 39 and “Incorporation of Information by Reference” beginning on page 40. We urge you to read any applicable prospectus supplement and the applicable warrant agreement and form of warrant certificate in their entirety.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

 

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our ordinary shares and/or our ADSs. These subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

 

  the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

  the exercise price payable for each ordinary share and/or ADS upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  the number of subscription rights to be issued to each shareholder;

 

  the number and terms of the ordinary shares and/or ADSs which may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

  the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

  any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

  the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

 

the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and 

     
  if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

 

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription right agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable subscription right agreement if we offer subscription rights, see “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 39 and “Incorporation by Reference” beginning on page 40. We urge you to read the applicable subscription right agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. The debt securities will be our direct general obligations and may include debentures, notes, bonds or other evidences of indebtedness. The debt securities will be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities. The debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures. Senior debt securities will be issued under a senior debt indenture, and subordinated debt securities will be issued under a subordinated debt indenture. We use the term “indentures” to refer to both the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture. A form of each of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act. We use the term “indenture trustee” to refer to either the senior trustee or the subordinated trustee, as applicable.

 

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The following summaries of material provisions of the debt securities and indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities and the description thereof contained in the prospectus supplement.

   

General

 

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

  the title or designation;

 

  any limit on the principal amount that may be issued;

 

  whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms and the Depositary;

 

  the maturity date;

 

  the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

  whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

  the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

  the place where payments will be payable;

 

  our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

  the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

 

  the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

 

  whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

  whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

  a discussion on any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;

 

  the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

 

  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for ordinary shares or other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of ordinary shares or other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

The indentures will not contain any covenant which restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets so long as (i) we are the surviving entity or (ii) the successor is a U.S. entity who assumes all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

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Events of Default Under the Indenture

 

The following may be events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

  if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for a number of days to be stated in the indenture and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

  if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

 

  if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for a number of days to be stated in the indenture after we receive notice from the indenture trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

  if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the indenture trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the indenture trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately; provided that if an event of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occurs, such amounts shall automatically become due and payable without any declaration or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver will cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture occurs and is continuing, the indenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the indenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the indenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the indenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

  the direction given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

  subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the indenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

  the holder has given written notice to the indenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

 

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the indenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and 

     
  the indenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the indenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

We and the indenture trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

  to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

  to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series.

 

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In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the indenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, we and the indenture trustee may only make the following changes with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

  changing the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities or any installment of principal of or interest on any series of debt securities;

 

  reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities; or

 

  reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

  register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

  replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

  maintain paying agencies;

 

  hold monies for payment in trust;

 

  compensate and indemnify the indenture trustee; and

 

  appoint any successor indenture trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the indenture trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due. 

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a Depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series. See “Book-Entry Issuance” for a further description of the terms relating to any book-entry securities.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series, at its option, can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, no service charge will be required for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

  issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

  register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the indenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the indenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Subordination of Subordinated Notes

 

The subordinated notes will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated notes which we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

Regarding the Indenture Trustee

 

We will name the indenture trustee for debt securities issued under the applicable indenture in the applicable supplement to this prospectus and, unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, the indenture trustee will also act as Transfer Agent and Paying Agent with respect to the debt securities. The indenture trustee may be removed at any time with respect to the debt securities of any series by act of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series delivered to the indenture trustee and to us.

 

Global Securities

 

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depository identified in an applicable subsequent filing and registered in the name of the depository or a nominee for the depository. In such a case, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of the series to be represented by the global security or securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities in definitive certificated form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depository for the global security to a nominee of the depository or by a nominee of the depository to the depository or another nominee of the depository or by the depository or any nominee to a successor depository for that series or a nominee of the successor depository and except in the circumstances described in an applicable subsequent filing.

 

We expect that the following provisions will apply to depository arrangements for any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by a global security. Any additional or different terms of the depository arrangement will be described in an applicable subsequent filing.

 

Upon the issuance of any global security, and the deposit of that global security with or on behalf of the depository for the global security, the depository will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the principal amounts of the debt securities represented by that global security to the accounts of institutions that have accounts with the depository or its nominee. The accounts to be credited will be designated by the underwriters or agents engaging in the distribution of the debt securities or by us, if the debt securities are offered and sold directly by us. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to participating institutions or persons that may hold interest through such participating institutions. Ownership of beneficial interests by participating institutions in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of the beneficial interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depository for the global security or by its nominee. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security by persons that hold through participating institutions will be shown on, and the transfer of the beneficial interests within the participating institutions will be effected only through, records maintained by those participating institutions. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that purchasers of securities take physical delivery of the securities in certificated form. The foregoing limitations and such laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in the global securities.

 

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So long as the depository for a global security, or its nominee, is the registered owner of that global security, the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable Indenture. Unless otherwise specified in an applicable subsequent filing and except as specified below, owners of beneficial interests in the global security will not be entitled to have debt securities of the series represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of debt securities of the series in certificated form and will not be considered the holders thereof for any purposes under the Indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in the global security must rely on the procedures of the depository and, if such person is not a participating institution, on the procedures of the participating institution through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the Indenture.

 

The depository may grant proxies and otherwise authorize participating institutions to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable Indenture. We understand that, under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or any owner of a beneficial interest in the global security desires to give any notice or take any action a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable Indenture, the depository would authorize the participating institutions to give the notice or take the action, and participating institutions would authorize beneficial owners owning through such participating institutions to give the notice or take the action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them.

 

Unless otherwise specified in applicable subsequent filings, payments of principal, premium and interest on debt securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depository or its nominee will be made by us to the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security.

 

We expect that the depository for any debt securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium or interest, will credit participating institutions’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of the global security as shown on the records of the depository. We also expect that payments by participating institutions to owners of beneficial interests in the global security held through those participating institutions will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers registered in street names, and will be the responsibility of those participating institutions. None of us, the trustees or any agent of ours or the trustees will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial interests in a global security, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial interests.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable subsequent filings, a global security of any series will be exchangeable for certificated debt securities of the same series only if:

 

  · the depository for such global securities notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depository or such depository ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and, in either case, a successor depository is not appointed by us within 90 days after we receive the notice or become aware of the ineligibility;

 

  · we in our sole discretion determine that the global securities shall be exchangeable for certificated debt securities; or

 

  · there shall have occurred and be continuing an event of default under the applicable Indenture with respect to the debt securities of that series.

 

Upon any exchange, owners of beneficial interests in the global security or securities will be entitled to physical delivery of individual debt securities in certificated form of like tenor and terms equal in principal amount to their beneficial interests, and to have the debt securities in certificated form registered in the names of the beneficial owners, which names are expected to be provided by the depository’s relevant participating institutions to the applicable trustee.

 

In the event that the Depository Trust Company, or “DTC,” acts as depository for the global securities of any series, the global securities will be issued as fully registered securities registered in the name of Cede & Co., DTC’s partnership nominee.

 

DTC is a member of the U.S. Federal Reserve System, a limited-purpose trust company under New York State banking law and a registered clearing agency with the Commission. Established in 1973, DTC was created to reduce costs and provide clearing and settlement efficiencies by immobilizing securities and making “book-entry” changes to ownership of the securities. DTC provides securities movements for the net settlements of the National Securities Clearing Corporation, or “NSCC,” and settlement for institutional trades (which typically involve money and securities transfers between custodian banks and broker/dealers), as well as money market instruments.

 

DTC is a subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Company, or “DTCC.” DTCC is a holding company established in 1999 to combine DTC and NSCC. DTCC, through its subsidiaries, provides clearing, settlement and information services for equities, corporate and municipal bonds, government and mortgage backed securities, money market instruments and over the-counter derivatives. In addition, DTCC is a leading processor of mutual funds and insurance transactions, linking funds and carriers with their distribution networks. DTCC’s customer base extends to thousands of companies within the global financial services industry. DTCC serves brokers, dealers, institutional investors, banks, trust companies, mutual fund companies, insurance carriers, hedge funds and other financial intermediaries—either directly or through correspondent relationships.

 

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DTCC is industry-owned by its customers who are members of the financial community, such as banks, broker/dealers, mutual funds and other financial institutions. DTCC operates on an at-cost basis, returning excess revenue from transaction fees to its member firms. All services provided by DTC are regulated by the Commission. 

 

The 2017 DTCC Board of Directors is composed of 20 directors serving one-year terms. Twelve directors are representatives of clearing agency participants, including broker/dealers, custodian and clearing banks, and investment institutions; two directors are designated by DTCC’s preferred shareholders, which are NYSE Euronext and FINRA; four directors are from non-participants; and the remaining two are the non-executive chairman and the chief executive officer and president of DTCC. All of the Board members except those designated by the preferred shareholders are elected annually.

 

To facilitate subsequent transfers, the debt securities may be registered in the name of DTC’s nominee, Cede & Co. The deposit of the debt securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. will effect no change in beneficial ownership. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the debt securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participating institutions to whose accounts debt securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participating institutions remain responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

Delivery of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participating institutions, by direct participating institutions to indirect participating institutions, and by direct participating institutions and indirect participating institutions to beneficial owners of debt securities are governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect.

 

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. consents or votes with respect to the debt securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC mails a proxy to the issuer as soon as possible after the record date. The proxy assigns Cede & Co.’s consenting or voting rights to those direct participating institution to whose accounts the debt securities are credited on the record date.

 

If applicable, redemption notices shall be sent to Cede & Co. If less than all of the debt securities of a series represented by global securities are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participating institutions in that issue to be redeemed.

 

To the extent that any debt securities provide for repayment or repurchase at the option of the holders thereof, a beneficial owner shall give notice of any option to elect to have its interest in the global security repaid by us, through its participating institution, to the applicable trustee, and shall effect delivery of the interest in a global security by causing the direct participating institution to transfer the direct participating institution’s interest in the global security or securities representing the interest, on DTC’s records, to the applicable trustee. The requirement for physical delivery of debt securities in connection with a demand for repayment or repurchase will be deemed satisfied when the ownership rights in the global security or securities representing the debt securities are transferred by direct participating institutions on DTC’s records.

 

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depository for the debt securities at any time. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor securities depository is not appointed, debt security certificates are required to be printed and delivered as described above.

 

We may decide to discontinue use of the system of book-entry transfers through the securities depository. In that event, debt security certificates will be printed and delivered as described above.

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

  · the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

  · any unit agreement under which the units will be issued;

 

  · any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

  · whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form. 

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any units. The preceding description and any description of units in the applicable prospectus supplement does not purport to be complete and is subject to and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the unit agreement and, if applicable, collateral arrangements and depositary arrangements relating to such units. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the applicable unit agreement if we offer units, see “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 39 and “Incorporation by Reference” beginning on page 40. We urge you to read the applicable unit agreement and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.

 

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TAXATION

 

The material United Kingdom and U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of any of the securities offered by this prospectus will be set forth in the prospectus supplement offering those securities.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

The securities being offered by this prospectus may be sold:

 

  through agents;

 

  to or through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or agency basis;

 

  through put or call option transactions relating to the securities;

 

  to or through dealers, who may act as agents or principals, including a block trade (which may involve crosses) in which a broker or dealer so engaged will attempt to sell as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

  through privately negotiated transactions;

 

  purchases by a broker or dealer as principal and resale by such broker or dealer for its own account pursuant to this prospectus;

 

  directly to purchasers, including our affiliates , through a specific bidding or auction process, on a negotiated basis or otherwise; to or through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or best efforts basis;

 

  exchange distributions and/or secondary distributions;

 

  ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker solicits purchasers;

 

  in “at-the-market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise;

 

  transactions not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales or privately negotiated transactions;

 

  transactions in options, swaps or other derivatives that may or may not be listed on an exchange or

 

  through any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law; or

 

  through a combination of any such methods of sale.

 

At any time a particular offer of the securities covered by this prospectus is made, a revised prospectus or prospectus supplement, if required, will be distributed which will set forth the aggregate amount of securities covered by this prospectus being offered and the terms of the offering, including the name or names of any underwriters, dealers, brokers or agents, any discounts, commissions, concessions and other items constituting compensation from us and any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers. Such prospectus supplement, and, if necessary, a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, will be filed with the SEC to reflect the disclosure of additional information with respect to the distribution of the securities covered by this prospectus. In order to comply with the securities laws of certain states, if applicable, the securities sold under this prospectus may only be sold through registered or licensed broker-dealers. In addition, in some states the securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from registration or qualification requirements is available and is complied with.

 

The distribution of securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including block transactions and transactions on The NASDAQ Capital Market or any other organized market where the securities may be traded. The securities may be sold at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, or at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices relating to the prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. The consideration may be cash or another form negotiated by the parties. Agents, underwriters or broker-dealers may be paid compensation for offering and selling the securities. That compensation may be in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions to be received from us or from the purchasers of the securities. Any dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and compensation received by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts. If any such dealers or agents were deemed to be underwriters, they may be subject to statutory liabilities under the Securities Act.

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Agents may from time to time solicit offers to purchase the securities. If required, we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and set forth any compensation payable to the agent. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. Any agent selling the securities covered by this prospectus may be deemed to be an underwriter, as that term is defined in the Securities Act, of the securities.

 

To the extent that we make sales to or through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings, we will do so pursuant to the terms of a distribution agreement between us and the underwriters or agents. If we engage in at-the-market sales pursuant to a distribution agreement, we will sell any of our listed securities to or through one or more underwriters or agents, which may act on an agency basis or on a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, we may sell any of our listed securities on a daily basis in exchange transactions or otherwise as we agree with the underwriters or agents. The distribution agreement will provide that any of our listed securities which are sold will be sold at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our listed securities. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time and will be described in a prospectus supplement. Pursuant to the terms of the distribution agreement, we also may agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of our listed securities. The terms of each such distribution agreement will be set forth in more detail in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus.

 

If underwriters are used in a sale, securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale, or under delayed delivery contracts or other contractual commitments. Securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. If an underwriter or underwriters are used in the sale of securities, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter or underwriters, as well as any other underwriter or underwriters, with respect to a particular underwritten offering of securities, and will set forth the terms of the transactions, including compensation of the underwriters and dealers and the public offering price, if applicable. The prospectus and prospectus supplement will be used by the underwriters to resell the securities.

 

If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities, we or an underwriter will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. To the extent required, we will set forth in the prospectus supplement the name of the dealer and the terms of the transactions. 

 

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities and may make sales of securities directly to institutional investors or others. These persons may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any resale of the securities. To the extent required, the prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any such sales, including the terms of any bidding or auction process, if used.

 

Agents, underwriters and dealers may be entitled under agreements which may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against specified liabilities, including liabilities incurred under the Securities Act, or to contribution by us to payments they may be required to make in respect of such liabilities. If required, the prospectus supplement will describe the terms and conditions of the indemnification or contribution. Some of the agents, underwriters or dealers, or their affiliates may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or our subsidiaries.

 

Any person participating in the distribution of securities registered under the registration statement that includes this prospectus will be subject to applicable provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the applicable SEC rules and regulations, including, among others, Regulation M, which may limit the timing of purchases and sales of any of our securities by that person. Furthermore, Regulation M may restrict the ability of any person engaged in the distribution of our securities to engage in market-making activities with respect to our securities. These restrictions may affect the marketability of our securities and the ability of any person or entity to engage in market-making activities with respect to our securities.

 

Certain persons participating in an offering may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions, penalty bids and other transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the offered securities. These activities may maintain the price of the offered securities at levels above those that might otherwise prevail in the open market, including by entering stabilizing bids, effecting syndicate covering transactions or imposing penalty bids, each of which is described below:

 

  a stabilizing bid means the placing of any bid, or the effecting of any purchase, for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of a security.

 

  a syndicate covering transaction means the placing of any bid on behalf of the underwriting syndicate or the effecting of any purchase to reduce a short position created in connection with the offering.

 

  a penalty bid means an arrangement that permits the managing underwriter to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member in connection with the offering when offered securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in syndicate covering transactions.

 

These transactions may be effected on an exchange or automated quotation system, if the securities are listed on that exchange or admitted for trading on that automated quotation system, or in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

 

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If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase offered securities from us at the public offering price set forth in such prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. Such contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement and the prospectus supplement will set forth the commission payable for solicitation of such contracts.

 

In addition, ordinary shares, ADSs or warrants may be issued upon conversion of or in exchange for debt securities or other securities.

 

Any underwriters to whom offered securities are sold for public offering and sale may make a market in such offered securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The offered securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. No assurance can be given that there will be a market for the offered securities.

 

Any securities that qualify for sale pursuant to Rule 144 or Regulation S under the Securities Act may be sold under Rule 144 or Regulation S rather than pursuant to this prospectus.

 

In connection with offerings made through underwriters or agents, we may enter into agreements with such underwriters or agents pursuant to which we receive our outstanding securities in consideration for the securities being offered to the public for cash. In connection with these arrangements, the underwriters or agents may also sell securities covered by this prospectus to hedge their positions in these outstanding securities, including in short sale transactions. If so, the underwriters or agents may use the securities received from us under these arrangements to close out any related open borrowings of securities.

 

We may enter into derivative transactions with third parties or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, such third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of shares, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of shares. The third parties (or affiliates of such third parties) in such sale transactions will be underwriters and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment).

 

We may loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities using this prospectus. Such financial institution or third party may transfer its short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a simultaneous offering of other securities offered by this prospectus or in connection with a simultaneous offering of other securities offered by this prospectus.

 

EXPERTS

 

BDO USA LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2016 included in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.  Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

BDO AG, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2015 included in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Certain legal matters of United States federal law will be passed upon for us by McDermott Will & Emery LLP, New York, New York. Certain legal matters as to English law will be passed upon for us by McDermott Will & Emery UK LLP, London, England. If the securities are distributed in an underwritten offering, certain legal matters will be passed upon for the underwriters by counsel identified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form F-3, including amendments and relevant exhibits and schedules, under the Securities Act covering the ordinary shares represented by ADSs to be sold in this offering. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, summarizes material provisions of contracts and other documents that we refer to in the prospectus. Since this prospectus does not contain all of the information contained in the registration statement, you should read the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules for further information with respect to us and our ordinary shares and the ADSs. You may review and copy the registration statement, reports and other information we file at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also request copies of these documents upon payment of a duplicating fee by writing to the SEC. For further information on the public reference facility, please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Our SEC filings, including the registration statement, are also available to you on the SEC’s Web site at  http://www.sec.gov.

 

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We are subject to the information reporting requirements of the Exchange Act that are applicable to foreign private issuers, and under those requirements we file reports with the SEC. Those other reports or other information may be inspected without charge at the locations described above. As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as United States companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, we file with the SEC, within four months after the end of each fiscal year, or such applicable time as required by the SEC, an annual report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm.

 

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

We file annual and special reports and other information with the SEC (File Number 001-36288). These filings contain important information that does not appear in this prospectus. The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to other documents which we have filed or will file with the SEC. We are incorporating by reference in this prospectus the documents listed below and all amendments or supplements we may file to such documents, as well as any future filings we may make with the SEC on Form 20-F under the Exchange Act before the time that all of the securities offered by this prospectus have been sold or de-registered:

 

  · our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2017;

 

  · our Form 6-Ks furnished with the SEC on May 11, 2017, May 15, 2017, May 16, 2017, May 30, 2017, June 23, 2017, June 29, 2017, July 18, 2017, August 8, 2017, August 10, 2017, August 21, 2017, September 7, 2017, September 15, 2017, September 21, 2017, October 11, 2017, October 17, 2017, October 19, 2017, November 13, 2017, December 8, 2017, December 11, 2017, January 26, 2018, February 1, 2018 and February 6, 2018 (in each case, to the extent expressly incorporated by reference into our effective registration statements filed by us under the Securities Act);

 

  · the description of the ADSs and ordinary shares contained in our Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 30, 2014 including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; 

 

In addition, any reports on Form 6-K submitted to the SEC by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement that we specifically identify in such forms as being incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and all subsequent annual reports on Form 20-F filed after the effective date of this registration statement and prior to the termination of this offering and any reports on Form 6-K subsequently submitted to the SEC or portions thereof that we specifically identify in such forms as being incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, shall be considered to be incorporated into this prospectus by reference and shall be considered a part of this prospectus from the date of filing or submission of such documents.

 

As you read the above documents, you may find inconsistencies in information from one document to another. If you find inconsistencies between the documents and this prospectus, you should rely on the statements made in the most recent document. All information appearing in this prospectus is qualified in its entirety by the information and financial statements, including the notes thereto, contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein.

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, a copy of these filings, at no cost, upon written or oral request to us at the following address:

 

Akari Therapeutics, PLC

75/76 Wimpole Street

London W1G 9RT

+44 20 8004 0270

Attention: David Horn Solomon 

 

INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS

 

We are incorporated under the laws of England and Wales. Several of our directors and officers reside outside the United States, and a portion of our assets and all or a substantial portion of the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for you to serve legal process on us or certain of our directors and executive officers or have any of them appear in a U.S. court.

 

 40 

 

 

It may be difficult for U.S. investors to bring and/or effectively enforce suits against our company in England. Although English courts do recognize U.S. judgments unless there is an overriding jurisdictional or public policy reason not to do so, if a judgment is obtained in the U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws against us, difficulties may arise in enforcing the judgment against us in the English courts. The enforceability of any U.S. judgment in the United Kingdom will depend on the particular facts of the case as well as the laws and treaties in effect at the time. The United States and the United Kingdom do not currently have a treaty providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. It may similarly be difficult for U.S. investors to bring an original action in the English courts to enforce liabilities based on U.S. federal securities laws.

 

EXPENSES

 

We are paying all of the expenses of the registration of our securities under the Securities Act, including, to the extent applicable, registration and filing fees, printing and duplication expenses, administrative expenses, accounting fees and the legal fees of our counsel. The following is a statement of estimated expenses at the present time in connection with the distribution of the securities registered hereby. All amounts shown are estimates except the SEC registration fee. The estimates do not include expenses related to offerings of particular securities. Each prospectus supplement describing an offering of securities will reflect the estimated expenses related to the offering of securities under that prospectus supplement.

 

SEC registration fees   $ 5,279  
FINRA filing fee   $ 15,500  
Legal fees and expenses   $ 25,000  
Accountants fees and expenses   $ 10,000  
Printing Fees   $ 5,000  
Miscellaneous   $ 5,000  
Total   $ 65,779  

 

 41 

 

 

$100,000,000

 

Ordinary Shares

American Depositary Shares representing Ordinary Shares

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities

Units

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

  

 

 

February       , 2018 

 

 42 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 8.  Indemnification of Directors, Officers and Employees

 

The Registrant’s articles of association provide that, subject to the Companies Act 2006, every director or other officer (excluding an auditor) of the Registrant may be indemnified out of the assets of the Registrant against all costs, charges, expenses, losses or liabilities incurred by him in performing his duties or the exercise of his powers or otherwise in relation to or in connection with his duties, powers or office.

 

The Registrant also maintains directors and officers insurance to insure such persons against certain liabilities.

 

Item 9. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

The index to exhibits appears below on the page immediately following the signature pages of this Registration Statement.

 

Item 10.  Undertakings

 

(a)The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

i.           To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

ii.          To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post- effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

 

iii.          To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and a(l)(iii) do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 or Form F-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2)That for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and this offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 43 

 

 

  (3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4) To file a post-effective amendment to the registration statement to include any financial statements required by Item 8.A. of Form 20-F at the start of any delayed offering or throughout a continuous offering. Financial statements and information otherwise required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Act need not be furnished, provided that the registrant includes in the prospectus, by means of a post-effective amendment, financial statements required pursuant to this paragraph (a)(4) and other information necessary to ensure that all other information in the prospectus is at least as current as the date of those financial statements. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to registration statements on Form F-3, a post-effective amendment need not be filed to include financial statements and information required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Act or Rule 3-19 of this chapter if such financial statements and information are contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Form F-3. 

 

  (5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  i. If the Registrant is relying on Rule 430B:

 

  (A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  ii. If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

  

 44 

 

  

  (6) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

 

The undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  i. Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  ii. Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  iii. The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

 

  iv. Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transactions by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.

 

  (d) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to deliver or cause to be delivered with the prospectus, to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest annual report to security holders that is incorporated by reference in the prospectus and furnished pursuant to and meeting the requirements of Rule 14a-3 or Rule 14c-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and, where interim financial information required to be presented by Article 3 of Regulation S-X are not set forth in the prospectus, to deliver, or cause to be delivered to each person to whom the prospectus is sent or given, the latest quarterly report that is specifically incorporated by reference in the prospectus to provide such interim financial information.

 

  (e) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the provisions described in Item 6 hereof, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 45 

 

 

  

  (f) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (g) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

  i. For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this Registration Statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of this Registration Statement as of the time it was declared effective.

 

  ii. For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 46 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in London, England on this 21st day of February, 2018.

 

  AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

 

  By: /s/ David Horn Solomon
    Name: David Horn Solomon
    Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on February 21, 2018.

 

Name   Title   Date
         
/s/ David Horn Solomon   Chief Executive Officer and Director    
David Horn Solomon    (principal executive officer)   February 21, 2018
         
/s/ Dov Elefant   Chief Financial Officer    
Dov Elefant   (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)   February 21, 2018
         
/s/ Ray Prudo   Executive Chairman    
Dr. Ray Prudo       February 21, 2018
         
*   Director    
James Hill       February 21, 2018
         
*   Director    
Stuart Ungar       February 21, 2018
         
*   Director    
David Byrne       February 21, 2018
         
*   Director    
Donald Williams       February 21, 2018
         
*   Director    
Robert Ward       February 21, 2018
         
/s/ Clive Richardson   Director    
Clive Richardson       February 21, 2018
         
/s/ Michael Grissinger   Director    
Michael Grissinger       February 21, 2018

 

*By: /s/ Dov Elefant  
  Dov Elefant  
  Attorney-in-Fact  

 

 47 

 

 

AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE

 

Pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the undersigned, the duly authorized representative in the United States of Akari Therapeutics Plc has signed this registration statement in the city of Monsey, the State of New York, on February 21, 2018.

 

  Vcorp Services, LLC
     
  By: /s/ Isaac Muller
    Name: Isaac Muller
    Title: Authorized Representative

 

 48 

 

 

EXHIBIT INDEX 

 

Exhibit 
No.
  Exhibit Description
1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement
     
3.1   Articles of Association of Akari Therapeutics, PLC (incorporated by reference to the exhibit previously filed with the Registrant’s Form 6-K filed on July 18, 2017)
     
4.1   Form of Deposit Agreement among the Registrant, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as Depositary, and all Owners and Holders from time to time of American Depositary Shares issued thereunder (incorporated by reference to the exhibit previously filed with the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form F-6 (No. 333-185197) filed on November 30, 2012)
     
4.2   Amendment to Deposit Agreement among the Registrant, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as Depositary, and all Owners and Holders from time to time of American Depositary Shares issued thereunder (incorporated by reference to the registrant’s Post-Effective Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement on Form F-6 (No. 333-185197) filed on December 24, 2013)
     
4.3   Form of Amendment No. 2 to Deposit Agreement (incorporated by reference to the exhibit previously filed with the Registrant’s Post-Effective Amendment on Registration Statement Form F-6 (File No. 333-185197) filed on September 9, 2015)
     
4.4   Form of American Depositary Receipt; the Form is Exhibit A of the Form of Amendment to the Deposit Agreement (incorporated by reference to the exhibit previously filed with the Registrant’s Post-Effective Amendment on Registration Statement Form F-6 (File No. 333-185197) filed on September 9, 2015)
     
4.5*   Form of Warrant Agreement (including Warrant Certificate)
     
4.6*   Form of Subscription Right Agreement (including form of Right Certificate)
     
4.7   Form of Indenture for Senior Indebtedness
     
4.8   Form of Indenture for Subordinated Indebtedness
     
4.9*   Form of Unit Agreement (including form of Unit Certificate)
     
4.10*   Form of Debt Security
     
5.1   Opinion of McDermott Will & Emery UK LLP, counsel to Registrant
     
5.2   Opinion of McDermott Will & Emery LLP, counsel to Registrant
     
12.1*   Statement regarding computation of ratios of earnings to fixed charges
     
23.1   Consent of BDO USA, LLP
     
23.2   Consent of BDO AG
     
23.3   Consent of McDermott Will & Emery UK LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
     
23.4   Consent of McDermott Will & Emery LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2)
     
24.1***   Power of Attorney (included in signature page)
     
25.1**   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1 with respect to the Indentures for Senior Debt Securities and Subordinated Debt Securities

 

 

*To be filed, if applicable, by amendment, or as an exhibit to a report on Form 6-K and incorporated herein by reference.
**To be filed separately under the electronic form type 305B2, if applicable.
*** Previously filed.

 

 49 

 

Exhibit 4.7

 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of                  , 20

 

[                                                            ]

Trustee

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

 

 

   

 

 

Table of Contents

 

   

Page

     
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
     
Section 1.1 Definitions 1
Section 1.2 Other Definitions 4
Section 1.3 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 5
Section 1.4 Rules of Construction 5
     
ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES 6
     
Section 2.1 Issuable in Series 6
Section 2.2 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities 6
Section 2.3 Denominations; Provision for Payment 8
Section 2.4 Execution and Authentication 8
Section 2.5 Registrar and Paying Agent 9
Section 2.6 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 10
Section 2.7 Securityholder Lists 10
Section 2.8 Transfer and Exchange 10
Section 2.9 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 11
Section 2.10 Outstanding Securities 12
Section 2.11 Treasury Securities 12
Section 2.12 Temporary Securities 12
Section 2.13 Cancellation 13
Section 2.14 Defaulted Interest 13
Section 2.15 Global Securities 13
Section 2.16 CUSIP Numbers 14
     
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION 15
     
Section 3.1 Notice to Trustee 15
Section 3.2 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed 15
Section 3.3 Notice of Redemption 15
Section 3.4 Effect of Notice of Redemption 16
Section 3.5 Deposit of Redemption Price 17
Section 3.6 Securities Redeemed in Part 17
     
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 17
     
Section 4.1 Payment of Principal and Interest 17
Section 4.2 Reports by Company 17
Section 4.3 Compliance Certificate 18
Section 4.4 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws 18
Section 4.5 Corporate Existence 18
     
 -i 

 

 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS 19
     
Section 5.1 Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets 19
Section 5.2 Successor Person Substituted 19
     
ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 19
     
Section 6.1 Events of Default 19
Section 6.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 21
Section 6.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 21
Section 6.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 22
Section 6.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 23
Section 6.6 Application of Money Collected 23
Section 6.7 Limitation on Suits 23
Section 6.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest 24
Section 6.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies 24
Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative 24
Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver 25
Section 6.12 Control by Holders 25
Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults 25
Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs 26
     
ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE 26
     
Section 7.1 Duties of Trustee 26
Section 7.2 Rights of Trustee 27
Section 7.3 Individual Rights of Trustee 29
Section 7.4 Trustee’s Disclaimer 29
Section 7.5 Notice of Defaults 29
Section 7.6 Reports by Trustee to Holders 29
Section 7.7 Compensation and Indemnity 29
Section 7.8 Replacement of Trustee 30
Section 7.9 Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc 31
Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification 31
Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company 31
     
ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 32
     
Section 8.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 32
Section 8.2 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification 33
Section 8.3 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series 33
Section 8.4 Covenant Defeasance 35
Section 8.5 Repayment to Company 36
Section 8.6 Reinstatement 36

 

 -ii 

 

 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    page
     
ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 36
     
Section 9.1 Without Consent of Holders 36
Section 9.2 With Consent of Holders 37
Section 9.3 Limitations 38
Section 9.4 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act 38
Section 9.5 Revocation and Effect of Consents 38
Section 9.6 Notation on or Exchange of Securities 39
Section 9.7 Trustee Protected 39
     
ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS 39
     
Section 10.1 Trust Indenture Act Controls 39
Section 10.2 Notices 39
Section 10.3 Communication by Holders with Other Holders 40
Section 10.4 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 40
Section 10.5 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 41
Section 10.6 Rules by Trustee and Agents 41
Section 10.7 Legal Holidays 41
Section 10.8 No Recourse Against Others 41
Section 10.9 Counterparts 42
Section 10.10 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver 42
Section 10.11 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 42
Section 10.12 Successors 42
Section 10.13 Severability 42
Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc 42
Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency 43
Section 10.16 Judgment Currency 43
Section 10.17 Force Majeure 44
     
ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS 44
     
Section 11.1 Applicability of Article 44
Section 11.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 44
Section 11.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 45

 

 -iii 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Indenture

dated as of ____________, 20

 

§ 310(a)(1) 7.10
(a)(2) 7.10
(a)(3) Not Applicable
(a)(4) Not Applicable
(a)(5) 7.10
(b) 7.10
§ 311(a) 7.11
(b) 7.11
§ 312(a) 2.7
(b) 10.3
(c) 10.3
§ 313(a) 7.6
(b)(1) 7.6
(b)(2) 7.6
(c)(1) 7.6
(d) 7.6
§ 314(a) 4.2, 10.5
(b) Not Applicable
(c)(1) 10.4
(c)(2) 10.4
(c)(3) Not Applicable
(d) Not Applicable
(e) 10.5
(f) Not Applicable
§ 315(a) 7.1
(b) 7.5
(c) 7.1
(d) 7.1
(e) 6.14
§ 316(a) 2.11
(a)(1)(A) 6.12
(a)(1)(B) 6.13
(b) 6.8
§ 317(a)(1) 6.3
(a)(2) 6.4
(b) 2.6
§ 318(a) 10.1

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

 -iv 

 

 

Indenture dated as of __________, 20__, between AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC, a company organized under the laws of England and Wales (“Company”), and _______________, as trustee (“Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE I
DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.1         Definitions.

 

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certification and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or any day, including a legal holiday, on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment).

 

Capital Stock” of any person means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of the equity of such person.

 

Certificated Securities” means definitive Securities in registered non-global certificated form.

 

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor, which duly assumes the obligations under this Indenture, replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.

 

   

 

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at __________________,; Attention: _______________, or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company, or the corporate trust office of any successor Trustee at which this Indenture shall be administered (or such other address as a successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders of the Company).

 

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in The United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

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Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered on the books of the Registrar.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” means, with respect to any Security, any interest on such Security, and with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, interest payable after Maturity.

 

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the President, any Senior Vice President or Vice President, the Treasurer, Assistant Treasurer, Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer (or any person designated in writing by an Officer of the Company as authorized to execute and deliver Officer’s Certificates) and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. Opinions of Counsel required to be delivered under this Indenture may have qualifications customary for opinions of the type required.

 

person” means any individual, corporation, company, voluntary association, partnership, trust, joint venture, limited liability company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency, instrumentality or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having direct responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

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Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or other business entity of which a majority of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock or other interests having the power to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person, or a combination thereof.

 

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

United States” or “U.S.” means The United States of America (including the states thereof and the District of Columbia), its territories and possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction.

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

Section 1.2         Other Definitions.

 

TERM

DEFINED IN SECTION
Bankruptcy Law 6.1
Custodian 6.1
Event of Default 6.1
Judgment Currency 10.16
Legal Holiday 10.7
mandatory sinking fund payment 11.1
optional sinking fund payment 11.1
Paying Agent 2.5
Registrar 2.5
Required Currency 10.16
successor person 5.1
   

 

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Section 1.3         Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.4         Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a)       a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(b)       an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

(c)       “or” is not exclusive;

 

(d)       words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(e)       provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

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ARTICLE II
THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.1         Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the terms of such Series. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture establishing the terms thereof may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

Section 2.2         Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

 

2.2.1      the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) of the Series;

 

2.2.2      the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

2.2.3      any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.8, 2.9, 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6);

 

2.2.4      the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

2.2.5      the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

2.2.6      the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

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2.2.7       if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series must be redeemed or may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

2.2.8       the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

2.2.9       the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

2.2.10     if other than denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

2.2.11     the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

 

2.2.12     if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.13     the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

2.2.14     the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

2.2.15     if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

2.2.16     the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

2.2.17     the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

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2.2.18     any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.19     any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

2.2.20     any Depositaries, trustees, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

2.2.21     the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, the securities or other property into which the Securities will be convertible, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

2.2.22     whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees; and

 

2.2.23     any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series.

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

 

Section 2.3          Denominations; Provision for Payment.

 

The Securities of any Series shall be issuable, except as otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, as registered Securities in the denominations of one thousand Dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. Unless otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any Series, if any, thereon, shall by payable in Dollars at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to any Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of any Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.

 

Section 2.4          Execution and Authentication.

 

Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

 

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If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.9.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4.

 

The Trustee shall have the right, but not the obligation, to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith determines that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability.

 

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.5          Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”) and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar or Paying Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.

 

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The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

Section 2.6          Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

 

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Securities of that Series, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

Section 2.7          Securityholder Lists.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.8          Transfer and Exchange.

 

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

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Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

Section 2.9          Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (a) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (b) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of written notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section 2.9, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section 2.9 in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

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The provisions of this Section 2.9 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.10         Outstanding Securities.

 

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by the Registrar and those described in this Section 2.10 as not outstanding.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.9, it ceases to be outstanding unless the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

 

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

 

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Section 2.11         Treasury Securities.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in conclusively relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right to deliver any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver with respect to the Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

 

Section 2.12         Temporary Securities.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary Securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

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Section 2.13         Cancellation.

 

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent, if not the Trustee, shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement, conversion or cancellation and shall dispose of such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) in accordance with its customary procedures and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.14         Defaulted Interest.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it may pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least 10 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

Section 2.15         Global Securities.

 

2.15.1     Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

2.15.2     Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.8 of this Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.8 of this Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (a) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (b) the Company determines in its sole discretion not to have such Securities represented by one or more Global Securities and executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

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Except as provided in this Section 2.15.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

2.15.3     Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

 

2.15.4     Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under this Indenture.

 

2.15.5     Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof, which in the case of a Depositary therefor will be made in accordance with its applicable procedures.

 

2.15.6     Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of such Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Section 2.16         CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Trustee shall have no liability for any defect in the “CUSIP” numbers as they appear on any Security, notice or elsewhere. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

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ARTICLE III
REDEMPTION

 

Section 3.1          Notice to Trustee.

 

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice to the Trustee at least 45 days before the redemption date, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the Trustee.

 

Section 3.2          Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including selecting by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary; provided that the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of any Security shall be in an authorized denomination (which shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Security. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

Section 3.3          Notice of Redemption.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

 

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(a)         the redemption date;

 

(b)         the redemption price and the amount of accrued interest, if any, to be paid;

 

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(c)         the name and address of the Paying Agent and, if applicable, the conversion Agent;

 

(d)         for convertible Securities, the conversion price;

 

(e)         if any Global Security is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Global Security to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date upon surrender of such Global Security, the principal amount thereof will be decreased by the portion thereof redeemed pursuant thereto;

 

(f)         if any Certificated Security is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security to be redeemed, and that, after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Certificated Security in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Certificated Security;

 

(g)         that Securities of the Series (or portion thereof) called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(h)         that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date unless the Company defaults in the deposit of the redemption price;

 

(i)          the CUSIP number, if any, and state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in the SEC’s notice or printed on the Securities; and

 

(j)          any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least 15 days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

 

Section 3.4         Effect of Notice of Redemption.

 

Once notice of redemption is mailed as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date other than Securities or portions of Securities called for redemption which have been delivered by the Company to the Registrar for cancellation. The Paying Agent shall return to the Company any money not required for that purpose.

 

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Unless the Company shall default in the payment of Securities (and accrued interest) called for redemption, interest on such Securities shall cease to accrue after the redemption date. Convertible Securities called for redemption shall cease to be convertible after the close of business on the Business Day immediately preceding the redemption date, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such Securities on the redemption date, in which event the Securities shall remain convertible until paid (together with accrued interest).

 

Failure to give notice of redemption, or any defect in such notice to the Holder of any Security of a Series designated for redemption, in whole or in part, shall not affect the sufficiency of any notice of redemption with respect to the Holder of any other Security of such Series.

 

Section 3.5         Deposit of Redemption Price.

 

On or before 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.6         Securities Redeemed in Part.

 

Upon surrender of a Certificated Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Certificated Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered and concurrently cancel the surrendered Certificated Security.

 

ARTICLE IV
COVENANTS

 

Section 4.1         Payment of Principal and Interest.

 

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. Principal and interest shall be considered paid on the date due if the Paying Agent holds in accordance with this Indenture on that date money sufficient to pay all principal and interest then due and the Paying Agent is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders on such date pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

Section 4.2         Reports by Company.

 

(a)       As long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall file with the Trustee, and transmit to the Holders, such information, documents and other reports, and such summaries thereof, as may be required pursuant to TIA § 314(a). All reports, information and documents referred to in this Section 4.2 will be deemed to be filed with the Trustee and transmitted to the Holders at the time such reports, information or documents are publicly filed with the SEC via the SEC’s EDGAR filing system (or any successor system), it being understood that the Trustee shall have no responsibility whatsoever to determine if such filings have been made.

 

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(b)       Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and shall not constitute a representation or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of the reports, information and documents. The Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

 

Section 4.3         Compliance Certificate.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements provided for in Section 10.4) from its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officer with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to such Officer signing such certificate, that to his or her knowledge the Company is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which the Officer has knowledge). Such Officer’s Certificate need not include a reference to any non-compliance that has been fully cured prior to the date as of which such certificate speaks.

 

Section 4.4         Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

 

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

Section 4.5         Corporate Existence.

 

Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and rights (charter and statutory); provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

 

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ARTICLE V
SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.1         Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets.

 

The Company may not consolidate with or merge with or into, sell, convey, transfer or dispose of all or substantially all of its assets to any other person (a “successor person”), whether in one transaction or a series of related transactions, unless:

 

(a)       (i) the Company is the surviving corporation or (ii) the successor person (if other than the Company) (A) is a corporation, limited liability corporation, partnership or trust organized under the laws of the United States; and (B) expressly assumes, by an indenture supplemental hereto, the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

 

(b)       immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default shall have happened and be continuing.

 

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with Section 5.1 of this Indenture.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

 

Section 5.2         Successor Person Substituted.

 

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, conveyance, transfer, or lease of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company and its Subsidiaries in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, conveyance, transfer, or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture and the Securities with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; and, thereafter, the predecessor Company, in the case of a sale, conveyance or transfer (other than a lease), shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

ARTICLE VI
DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

 

Section 6.1         Events of Default.

 

Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

 

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(a)         failure to pay any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period);

 

(b)         failure to pay principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity;

 

(c)         default in the performance or breach of any covenant of the Company in this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to sub-clauses (a) through (c) above or defaults related to a covenant that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of a Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder;

 

(d)         the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

 

(i)         commences a voluntary case,

 

(ii)        consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

(iii)       consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iv)        makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors;

 

(e)         a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

 

(i)         is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

 

(ii)        appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iii)       orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

 

(f)        any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

 

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

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A Default under one Series of Securities issued under this Indenture will not necessarily be a default under another Series of Securities under this Indenture.

 

The Company will, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within 30 days of becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officer’s Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

 

Section 6.2       Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(d) or (e)) then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

 

At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

 

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default.

 

Section 6.3       Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

The Company covenants that if

 

(a)       default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

 

(b)       default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

 

(c)       default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, if any, when and as due by the terms of a Security,

 

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then, the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

 

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

Section 6.4       Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

 

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relating to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

 

(a)       to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

 

(b)       to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

 

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Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.5       Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

 

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

Section 6.6       Application of Money Collected.

 

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

First: To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee under this Indenture; and

 

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

 

Third: To the Company.

 

Section 6.7       Limitation on Suits.

 

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

 

(a)       such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

 

(b)       the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

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(c)       such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

 

(d)       the Trustee has failed to institute any such proceeding for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity; and

 

(e)       no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

 

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series; provided, however, that the Trustee does not have an affirmative duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

 

Section 6.8       Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security has the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

Section 6.9       Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

 

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

Section 6.10      Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

 

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.9, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

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Section 6.11       Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

Section 6.12       Control by Holders.

 

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that:

 

(a)       such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture;

 

(b)       the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction;

 

(c)       subject to the provisions of Section 7.1, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability; and

 

(d)       prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

Section 6.13       Waiver of Past Defaults.

 

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default.

 

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Section 6.14       Undertaking for Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section 6.14 shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

ARTICLE VII
TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.1        Duties of Trustee.

 

(a)       If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

(b)       Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

 

(i)       The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

 

(ii)       In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein).

 

(c)       The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i)       This sub-clause (c) does not limit the effect of sub-clause (b) of this Section 7.1.

 

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(ii)       The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

 

(iii)       The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

 

(d)       Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to sub-clauses (a), (b) and (c) of this Section 7.1.

 

(e)       The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

 

(f)       The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

(g)       No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee in its satisfaction.

 

(h)       The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in sub-clauses (e), (f) and (g) of this Section 7.1 and in Section 7.2, each with respect to the Trustee.

 

Section 7.2        Rights of Trustee.

 

(a)       The Trustee may conclusively rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

 

(b)       Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it shall be entitled to receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in conclusive reliance on such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.

 

(c)       The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

 

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(d)       The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute willful misconduct or negligence.

 

(e)       The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon.

 

(f)       The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

(g)       The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit and shall incur no liability or additional liability of any kind by reason of such inquiry or investigation.

 

(h)       The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

 

(i)       In no event shall the Trustee be liable to any person for special, punitive, indirect, consequential or incidental loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including but not limited to lost profits), even if the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage.

 

(j)       The permissive right of the Trustee to take the actions permitted by this Indenture shall not be construed as an obligation or duty to do so.

 

(k)       The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder.

 

(l)       The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers and duties hereunder.

 

(m)       The Trustee may request that the Company deliver a certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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Section 7.3       Individual Rights of Trustee.

 

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. However, the Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11 hereof.

 

Section 7.4       Trustee’s Disclaimer.

 

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

 

Section 7.5       Notice of Defaults.

 

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is actually known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as it in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

 

Section 7.6       Reports by Trustee to Holders.

 

Within 60 days after each anniversary of the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such reporting date, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA § 313.

 

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange or of any delisting thereof.

 

Section 7.7       Compensation and Indemnity.

 

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out of pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

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The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee against any cost, expense, claim (whether asserted by the Company, a Holder or any other person) or liability (including the cost of defending itself), including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee), incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder, unless and to the extent that the Company is materially prejudiced thereby. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent will not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee or shareholder of the Trustee through willful misconduct or negligence.

 

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

 

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(f) or (g) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

The provisions of this Section 7.7 shall survive the termination of this Indenture or the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

Section 7.8       Replacement of Trustee.

 

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section 7.8.

 

The Trustee may resign at any time with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company in writing. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

 

(a)       the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

 

(b)       the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

 

(c)       a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

 

(d)       the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

 

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If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

 

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 30 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee at the expense of the Company.

 

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.7, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

 

Section 7.9         Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

 

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, if such successor corporation is eligible and qualified under Section 7.10.

 

Section 7.10       Eligibility; Disqualification.

 

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA § 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA § 310(b).

 

Section 7.11       Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

 

The Trustee is subject to TIA § 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA § 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA § 311(a) to the extent indicated.

 

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ARTICLE VIII
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

 

Section 8.1       Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.1), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

 

(a)         either

 

(i)         all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.9) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

(ii)         all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation:

 

(1)       have become due and payable, or

 

(2)       will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

 

(3)       have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company;

 

and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount of money or U.S. Government Obligations sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

 

(b)         the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

 

(c)         the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

 

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.7, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to sub-clause (a) of this Section 8.1, the provisions of Sections 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 8.2 and 8.5 shall survive.

 

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Section 8.2        Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

 

(a)       Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3 or 8.4 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3 or 8.4, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.3 or 8.4.

 

(b)       The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

 

(c)       The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.3 or 8.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

 

Section 8.3        Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

 

Unless this Section 8.3 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.2, to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in sub-clause (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, upon receipt of a Company Order, execute instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

 

(a)       the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in sub-clause (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

 

(b)       the provisions of Sections 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 8.2, 8.3 and 8.5; and

 

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(c)       the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith;

 

provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(d)       the Company shall have deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities: (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms (and without reinvestment), will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

(e)       such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(f)       no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

 

(g)       the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

 

(h)       the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

(i)       the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section 8.3 have been complied with.

 

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Section 8.4        Covenant Defeasance.

 

Unless this Section 8.4 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.2 and 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.1) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2.18 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(a)       With reference to this Section 8.4, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities: (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms (and without reinvestment), will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

(b)       Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(c)       No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

 

(d)       The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

(e)       The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

(f)       The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section 8.4 have been complied with.

 

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Section 8.5       Repayment to Company.

 

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal or interest that remains unclaimed for two years after such principal or interest has become due and payable. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

 

Section 8.6       Reinstatement.

 

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.1 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.1; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent after payment in full to the Holders.

 

ARTICLE IX
AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

 

Section 9.1       Without Consent of Holders.

 

The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

 

(a)       to add guarantees with respect to any Series of Securities or secure any Series of Securities;

 

(b)       to surrender any of the Company’s rights or powers under this Indenture;

 

(c)       to add covenants or Events of Default for the benefit of the Securityholders of any Series of Securities;

 

(d)       to comply with the applicable rules or procedures of the Depositary;

 

(e)       to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, as described in the Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 10.4;

 

(f)       to comply with Article V;

 

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(g)       to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

(h)       to make any change that does not materially adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

 

(i)        to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

 

(j)        to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;

 

(k)       to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA;

 

(l)        to comply with the rules or regulations of any securities exchange or automated quotation system on which any of the Securities may be listed or traded; and

 

(m)      to change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture, provided that any such change or elimination shall not be effective with respect to any outstanding Securities of any Series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture which is entitled to the benefit of such provision.

 

Section 9.2       With Consent of Holders.

 

The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by written notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this Section 9.2 becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby, a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Company to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

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Section 9.3       Limitations.

 

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

 

(a)       reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

(b)       reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security or that Series;

 

(c)       reduce the principal of, or change the Stated Maturity of, any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

 

(d)       reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

(e)       waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

(f)       make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

 

(g)       make any change in Sections 6.8 or 6.13 or this Section 9.3; or

 

(h)       waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security.

 

Section 9.4       Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

 

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

 

Section 9.5       Revocation and Effect of Consents.

 

Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security.

 

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of sub-clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.3. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

 

 38 

 

  

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to give their consent or take any other action described above or required or permitted to be taken pursuant to this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, then notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to give such consent or to revoke any consent previously given or take any such action, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 120 days after such record date.

 

Section 9.6       Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

 

The Company or the Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

 

Section 9.7       Trustee Protected.

 

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall receive, and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both complying with Section 10.4 and stating that the supplemental indenture is the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, subject to customary exceptions. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel or both, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that, in its sole discretion, adversely affects its rights.

 

ARTICLE X
MISCELLANEOUS

 

Section 10.1       Trust Indenture Act Controls.

 

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

 

Section 10.2       Notices.

 

Any request, demand, notice or communication by the Company or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Company or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:

 

 39 

 

 

if to the Company:

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

 

if to the Trustee:

 

Attention:

 

The Company or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

 

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

 

If a notice or communication is mailed or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

 

If the Company mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

 

Section 10.3       Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

 

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA § 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA § 312(c).

 

Section 10.4       Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

 

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

 

 40 

 

 

(a)       an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

 

(b)       an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

 

Section 10.5       Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

 

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA § 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA § 314(e) and shall include:

 

(a)       a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

 

(b)       a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(c)       a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(d)       a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 10.6       Rules by Trustee and Agents.

 

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

 

Section 10.7       Legal Holidays.

 

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

 

Section 10.8       No Recourse Against Others.

 

A director, officer, employee or stockholder (past or present), as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or this Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

 41 

 

 

Section 10.9        Counterparts.

 

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

 

Section 10.10       Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver.

 

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING ANY CLAIM OR CONTROVERSY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES, SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK (WITHOUT REGARD TO THE CONFLICTS OF LAWS PROVISIONS THEREOF OTHER THAN SECTION 5-1401 OF THE GENERAL OBLIGATIONS LAW).

 

EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES OR THE TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

Section 10.11       No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

 

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

 

Section 10.12       Successors.

 

All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

 

Section 10.13       Severability.

 

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

Section 10.14       Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

 

The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

 42 

 

 

Section 10.15       Securities in a Foreign Currency.

 

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in more than one currency, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be determined by converting any such other currency into a currency that is designated upon issuance of any particular Series of Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, such conversion shall be at the spot rate for the purchase of the designated currency as published in The Financial Times in the “Currency Rates” section (or, if The Financial Times is no longer published, or if such information is no longer available in The Financial Times, such source as may be selected in good faith by the Company) on any date of determination. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

All decisions and determinations provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, in the absence of manifest error, to the extent permitted by law, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Trustee and all Holders.

 

Section 10.16       Judgment Currency.

 

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, then the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

 

 43 

 

 

Section 10.17       Force Majeure.

 

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services, it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable best efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

 

Section 10.18       U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

ARTICLE XI
SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 11.1       Applicability of Article.

 

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series if so provided by the terms of such Securities pursuant to Section 2.2 and except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

 

Section 11.2       Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (a) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (b) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of the Securities of such Series (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Trustee, together with an Officer’s Certificate with respect thereto, not later than 15 days prior to the date on which the Trustee begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.2, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $100,000, the Trustee need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Trustee or a Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Trustee or such Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

 

 44 

 

 

Section 11.3       Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.2, and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified. Not less than 30 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.2 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.3. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6.

 

[Signature page follows]

 

 45 

 

  

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

  AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC, as Issuer
     
  By:  
    Name:  
    Its:  
      , as Trustee
       
  By:  
    Name:  
    Its:  

 

 46 

 

Exhibit 4.8

 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of                     , 20

 

[                                                 ]

 

Trustee

 

Subordinated Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
     
Section 1.1 Definitions 1
Section 1.2 Other Definitions 4
Section 1.3 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 5
Section 1.4 Rules of Construction 5
     
ARTICLE II THE SECURITIES 6
     
Section 2.1 Issuable in Series 6
Section 2.2 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities 6
Section 2.3 Denominations; Provision for Payment 8
Section 2.4 Execution and Authentication 9
Section 2.5 Registrar and Paying Agent 9
Section 2.6 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 10
Section 2.7 Securityholder Lists 10
Section 2.8 Transfer and Exchange 11
Section 2.9 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 11
Section 2.10 Outstanding Securities 12
Section 2.11 Treasury Securities 12
Section 2.12 Temporary Securities 13
Section 2.13 Cancellation 13
Section 2.14 Defaulted Interest 13
Section 2.15 Global Securities 13
Section 2.16 CUSIP Numbers 15
     
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION 15
     
Section 3.1 Notice to Trustee 15
Section 3.2 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed 15
Section 3.3 Notice of Redemption 15
Section 3.4 Effect of Notice of Redemption 16
Section 3.5 Deposit of Redemption Price 17
Section 3.6 Securities Redeemed in Part 17
     
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 17
     
Section 4.1 Payment of Principal and Interest 17
Section 4.2 Reports by Company 18
Section 4.3 Compliance Certificate 18
Section 4.4 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws 18
Section 4.5 Corporate Existence 19
     
ARTICLE V SUCCESSORS 19
     
Section 5.1 Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets 19
Section 5.2 Successor Person Substituted 19

 

 -i- 

 

 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE VI DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 20
     
Section 6.1 Events of Default 20
Section 6.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 21
Section 6.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 22
Section 6.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 22
Section 6.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 23
Section 6.6 Application of Money Collected 23
Section 6.7 Limitation on Suits 24
Section 6.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest 24
Section 6.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies 24
Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative 25
Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver 25
Section 6.12 Control by Holders 25
Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults 26
Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs 26
     
ARTICLE VII TRUSTEE 26
     
Section 7.1 Duties of Trustee 26
Section 7.2 Rights of Trustee 27
Section 7.3 Individual Rights of Trustee 29
Section 7.4 Trustee’s Disclaimer 29
Section 7.5 Notice of Defaults 29
Section 7.6 Reports by Trustee to Holders 29
Section 7.7 Compensation and Indemnity 30
Section 7.8 Replacement of Trustee 30
Section 7.9 Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc 31
Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification 31
Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company 32
     
ARTICLE VIII SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 32
     
Section 8.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 32
Section 8.2 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification 33
Section 8.3 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series 33
Section 8.4 Covenant Defeasance 35
Section 8.5 Repayment to Company 36
Section 8.6 Reinstatement 36

 

 -ii- 

 

 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE IX AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 36
     
Section 9.1 Without Consent of Holders 36
Section 9.2 With Consent of Holders 37
Section 9.3 Limitations 38
Section 9.4 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act 38
Section 9.5 Revocation and Effect of Consents 38
Section 9.6 Notation on or Exchange of Securities 39
Section 9.7 Trustee Protected 39
     
ARTICLE X MISCELLANEOUS 39
     
Section 10.1 Trust Indenture Act Controls 39
Section 10.2 Notices 40
Section 10.3 Communication by Holders with Other Holders 40
Section 10.4 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 41
Section 10.5 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 41
Section 10.6 Rules by Trustee and Agents 41
Section 10.7 Legal Holidays 41
Section 10.8 No Recourse Against Others 42
Section 10.9 Counterparts 42
Section 10.10 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver 42
Section 10.11 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 42
Section 10.12 Successors 42
Section 10.13 Severability 43
Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc 43
Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency 43
Section 10.16 Judgment Currency 43
Section 10.17 Force Majeure 44
Section 10.18 U.S.A. Patriot Act 44
     
ARTICLE XI SINKING FUNDS 44
     
Section 11.1 Applicability of Article 44
Section 11.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 45
Section 11.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 45
     
ARTICLE XII SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES 46
     
Section 12.1 Subordination of Terms 46

 

 -iii- 

 

 

AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC

 

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of , 20

 

§ 310(a)(1) 7.10
(a)(2) 7.10
(a)(3) Not Applicable
(a)(4) Not Applicable
(a)(5) 7.10
(b) 7.10
§ 311(a) 7.11
(b) 7.11
§ 312(a) 2.7
(b) 10.3
(c) 10.3
§ 313(a) 7.6
(b)(1) 7.6
(b)(2) 7.6
(c)(1) 7.6
(d) 7.6
§ 314(a) 4.2, 10.5
(b) Not Applicable
(c)(1) 10.4
(c)(2) 10.4
(c)(3) Not Applicable
(d) Not Applicable
(e) 10.5
(f) Not Applicable
§ 315(a) 7.1
(b) 7.5
(c) 7.1
(d) 7.1
(e) 6.14
§ 316(a) 2.11
(a)(1)(A) 6.12
(a)(1)(B) 6.13
(b) 6.8
§ 317(a)(1) 6.3
(a)(2) 6.4
(b) 2.6
§ 318(a) 10.1

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

 -iv- 

 

 

Indenture dated as of                                            , 20 , between AKARI THERAPEUTICS, PLC, a company organized under the laws of England and Wales (“Company”), and , as trustee (“Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.1           Definitions.

 

“Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

“Agent” means any Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

“Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certification and delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Business Day” means, for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or any day, including a legal holiday, on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment).

 

“Capital Stock” of any person means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of the equity of such person.

 

“Certificated Securities” means definitive Securities in registered non-global certificated form.

 

“Company” means the party named as such above until a successor, which duly assumes the obligations under this Indenture, replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.

 

 - 1 - 

 

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                  , Attention:                 , or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company, or the corporate trust office of any successor Trustee at which this Indenture shall be administered (or such other address as a successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders of the Company).

 

“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

“Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

“Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

“GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in The United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

 

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

 - 2 - 

 

 

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered on the books of the Registrar.

 

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

“interest” means, with respect to any Security, any interest on such Security, and with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, interest payable after Maturity.

 

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

“Officer” means the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the President, any Senior Vice President or Vice President, the Treasurer, Assistant Treasurer, Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company.

 

“Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer (or any person designated in writing by an Officer of the Company as authorized to execute and deliver Officer’s Certificates) and delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. Opinions of Counsel required to be delivered under this Indenture may have qualifications customary for opinions of the type required.

 

“person” means any individual, corporation, company, voluntary association, partnership, trust, joint venture, limited liability company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency, instrumentality or political subdivision thereof.

 

“principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on the Security.

 

“Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having direct responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

“SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

“Securities” means the subordinated debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

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“Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security is due and payable.

 

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or other business entity of which a majority of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock or other interests having the power to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such person, or a combination thereof.

 

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

“Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

“United States” or “U.S.” means The United States of America (including the states thereof and the District of Columbia), its territories and possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction.

 

“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

Section 1.2           Other Definitions.

 

TERM DEFINED IN SECTION
“Bankruptcy Law” 6.1
“Custodian” 6.1
“Event of Default” 6.1
“Judgment Currency” 10.16
“Legal Holiday” 10.7
“mandatory sinking fund payment” 11.1
“optional sinking fund payment” 11.1
“Paying Agent” 2.5
“Registrar” 2.5
“Required Currency” 10.16
“successor person” 5.1
   

 

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Section 1.3           Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

“Commission” means the SEC.

 

“indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

“indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

 

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

“obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.4           Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a)          a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(b)          an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

(c)          “or” is not exclusive;

 

(d)          words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(e)          provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

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ARTICLE II

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.1           Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the terms of such Series. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture establishing the terms thereof may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

Section 2.2           Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.24) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

 

2.2.1           the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) of the Series;

 

2.2.2           the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

2.2.3           any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.8, 2.9, 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6);

 

2.2.4           the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

2.2.5           the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

2.2.6           the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

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2.2.7           if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series must be redeemed or may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

2.2.8           the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

2.2.9           the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

2.2.10         if other than denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

2.2.11         the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

 

2.2.12         if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.13         the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

2.2.14         the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

2.2.15         if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

2.2.16         the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

2.2.17         the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

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2.2.18         any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.19         any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

2.2.20         any Depositaries, trustees, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

2.2.21         the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, the securities or other property into which the Securities will be convertible, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

2.2.22         whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees;

 

2.2.23         the subordination terms of the Securities of the Series; and

 

2.2.24         any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series.

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

 

Section 2.3           Denominations; Provision for Payment.

 

The Securities of any Series shall be issuable, except as otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, as registered Securities in the denominations of one thousand Dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof. Unless otherwise provided with respect to Securities of any Series pursuant to Section 2.2, the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any Series, if any, thereon, shall by payable in Dollars at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to any Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of any Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.

 

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Section 2.4           Execution and Authentication.

 

Two Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

 

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.9.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 9.7 (with respect to the execution of supplemental indentures) and Section 10.4.

 

The Trustee shall have the right, but not the obligation, to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith determines that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability.

 

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.5           Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”) and where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar or Paying Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar or Paying Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations and surrenders may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations and surrenders.

 

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The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars or additional paying agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent in each place so specified for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar or additional paying agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; and the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each Series unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

Section 2.6           Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

 

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Securities of that Series, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

Section 2.7           Securityholder Lists.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

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Section 2.8           Transfer and Exchange.

 

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.12, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

Section 2.9           Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and beari